OR Insight

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 127–139 | Cite as

Quantifying the environmental benefits of collection/delivery points

Original Article


Using a node-based routing and scheduling package, this paper estimates the environmental impacts of using a local railway station as a collection/delivery point (CDP) for small parcel transactions. This delivery option was compared with a typical existing situation where some customers who suffer a failed home delivery attempt decide to travel to the carrier's depot to collect their goods. The modelled results suggested that, at a 20 per cent take-up level, the CDP method would reduce the carbon monoxide emissions associated with the deliveries by around 20 per cent and other emissions (nitrogen oxide, particulate matter, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons) by between 13 per cent and 15 per cent, with higher savings at higher take-up levels. The customer mileage attributable to the collection was modelled to reduce by up to 33 per cent. Modest travel savings were also found for the carrier.


road transport vehicle routing logistics travel behaviour 


  1. Bertsimas, D.J. (1992) A vehicle routing problem with stochastic demand. Operations Research 40 (3): 574–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cairns, S. (1998) Promises and problems: Using GIS to understand home shopping travel. Journal of Transport Geography 6 (4): 274–284.Google Scholar
  3. Cairns, S. (2005) Delivering supermarket shopping: More or less traffic? Transport Reviews 25 (1): 51–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cordeau, J., Gendreau, M., Laporte, G., Potvin, J. and Semet, F. (2002) A guide to vehicle routing heuristics. Journal of the Operational Research Society 53 (5): 512–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Department of Trade and Industry. (2001) @Your Home: New Markets for Customer Service and Delivery. DTI Foresight publication 5749 2K/10/01/NP.URN 01/1098.Google Scholar
  6. Ioannou, G., Kritikos, M. and Prastacos, G. (2001) A greedy look-ahead heuristic for the vehicle routing problem with time windows. Journal of the Operational Research Society 52 (5): 523–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. McLeod, F.N., Cherrett, T.J. and Song, L. (2006) Transport impacts of local collection/ delivery points. International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications 9 (3): 307–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Mitrovic-Minic, S. and Laporte, G. (2004) Waiting strategies for the dynamic pickup and delivery problem with time windows. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological 38 (7): 635–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Nagy, G. and Salhi, S. (2007) Location-routing: Issues, models and methods. European Journal of Operational Research 177 (2): 649–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Palmer, A. (2001) The Effects of Grocery Home Shopping on Road Traffic. London: Department of Trade and Industry, Report to the Retail Logistics Task Force, 2001. Revised by McKinnon A.Google Scholar
  11. Punakivi, M. and Saranen, J. (2001) Identifying the success factors in e-grocery home delivery. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management 30 (10): 498–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Repoussis, P., Tarantilis, C. and Ioannou, G. (2007) The open vehicle routing problem with time windows. Journal of the Operational Research Society 58: 355–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Roper, J. (2006) Valuing home delivery-where's my stuff? In: G. Marsden (ed.) Wasted Miles, Wasted Money (a Less Congested, More Energy Efficient Future). Cambridge, UK: CICC Publications, pp. 53–60.Google Scholar
  14. Rowlands, P. (2006) Unattended delivery solutions-finally picking up? Fulfilment and E.Logistics 39: 19–20.Google Scholar
  15. Song, L. (2008) Transport and environmental impacts of current home delivery services and the benefits of alternative measures. PhD thesis, School of Civil Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton.Google Scholar
  16. Turner, M.W. (2007) ‘Sorry, we tried to deliver but you weren’t in’ – Quantifying the impacts of failed first time deliveries. MSc dissertation, School of Civil Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton.Google Scholar
  17. Zeimpekis, V.S., Tarantilis, C.D., Giaglis, G.M. and Minis, I. (eds.) (2007) Dynamic fleet management – concepts, systems, algorithms and case studies. Book series: Operations Research/Computer Science Interfaces Series, Vol. 38, Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Operational Research Society Ltd 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Transportation Research Group, School of Civil Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, HighfieldSouthamptonUK

Personalised recommendations