A study of dry port development in China
- 275 Downloads
This article reviews the development paths of dry ports in China. Dry ports have emerged as an integral part of trade facilitation in China in the last decade and have played an important role in regional and economic development. The emergence of dry ports (offshore ports) is driven partly by proximity to main population centres or industrial areas and partly by the need to support rapidly growing container flows. However, the development paths of Chinese dry ports show several differences, depending on their location, and this article highlights and explains these. Without a clear definition, the institutional and regulatory framework for dry port development is shown to be immature and complex. While the central government has dealt with relevant institutional matters under the existing regulatory framework, decision making at a local level is under the control of municipal bodies, providing ample space for officials to interpret the intentions of central governance. Innovative policies and relationship management are major tools for addressing different institutional problems; however, the lack of a uniform set of policy guidelines raises many legal challenges. This article suggests possible solutions to the problems identified during the establishment of mature dry port facilities, with priority being given to establishing a clear legal definition of what dry ports are. From this cascades their core purpose, responsibilities and modus operandi.
Keywordsdry ports China intermodal case studies institutions
- ADB (Asia Development Bank). (2008a) Technical note: Options for freight terminal development and management, http://www.adb.org/documents/reports/consultant/40610-01-arm/40610-arm-tacr.pdf.
- ADB. (2008b) People's Republic of China: Transport efficiency through logistics development policy study, http://www.adb.org/documents/tars/prc/41112-prc-tar.pdf.
- Beresford, A.K.C. and Dobson, H. (1989) Lloyd's Maritime Atlas, 16th edn. Colchester, UK: Lloyd's of London Press.Google Scholar
- Beresford, A.K.C. and Dubey, R.C. (1990) Handbook on the Operation and Management of Dry Ports. Geneva: UNCTAD, p. 92.Google Scholar
- Carruthers, R. and Bajpai, J.N. (2002) Trends in Trade and Logistics: An East Asian Perspective. Washington, DC: World Bank. Transport Sector Unit. Working Paper No. 2.Google Scholar
- Chinadaily. (2009) Xi’an GDP 2009, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/dfpd/2010-01/22/content_9364612.htm.
- Chinaknowledge. (2010) Services in China: China logistics industry, http://www.chinaknowledge.com/business/cbgdetails.aspx?Subchap=4&content=19.
- CNSS. (2010) Tianjin port stationed in XITLP, http://www.cnss.com.cn/article/38704.html.
- Doingbusiness. (2010) Trading across borders, http://www.doingbusiness.org/exploretopics/tradingacrossborders/.
- FIL (Freeport International Logistics). (2010) Business with FIL, http://www.ynfreeport.com/.Google Scholar
- Frankel, E.G. (1991) Port performance and productivity measurement. Ports and Harbours 36 (8): 11–13.Google Scholar
- Garnwa, P., Beresford, A.K.C. and Pettit, S.J. (2010) Dry ports: A comparative study of the UK and Nigeria. in Transport and Communications Bulletin, No. 78 – Development of Dry Ports, UNESCAP, Bangkok, pp. 58–81.Google Scholar
- Goss, R.O. (1976) Studies in Maritime Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Guislain, P. and Kerf, M. (1995) Concessions: The way to privatize infrastructure sector monopolies. Public Policy for the Private Sector (5): 4.Google Scholar
- Gujar, G. (2010) Public private partnerships and competitive advantage of Indian dry ports, http://www.scribd.com/doc/27184217/Dry-Ports-Public-Private-Partnership.
- Hoyle, B.S. and Hilling, D. (1984) Seaport Systems and Spatial Change. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
- KETDZ (Kunming Economic Technological Development Zone). (2010) News of investment, http://www.ketdz.gov.cn/.
- Kvale, S. (1996) Interviews – An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing. London, UK: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Liping, S. (2009) Analysis on the strategies of Tianjin's waterless port construction. Logistics Sci-Tech 32 (10): 19–21.Google Scholar
- McNamara, C. (1999) General Guidelines for Conducting Interview, Minnesota.Google Scholar
- Notteboom, T. (2007) Concession agreements as port governance tools. In: M.R. Brooks and K.P.B. Cullinane (eds.) Devolution, Port Governance and Port Performance, Research in Transportation Economics, Vol. XVII. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, pp. 437–455.Google Scholar
- Ögütçü, M. (2002) Foreign direct investment and importance of the ‘go west’ strategy in China's energy sector, http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/1/35/2085596.pdf, OECD.
- Pettit, S.J. and Beresford, A.K.C. (2010) Multimodal supply chains: Iron ore from Australia to China. Supply Chain Management – An International Journal 16 (1): 32–42.Google Scholar
- Rodrigue, J.P., Slack, B. and Notteboom, T. (2009) Transport terminal governance The Geography of Transport Systems, http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch4en/conc4en/ch4c6en.html.
- SCRIBD. (2009) Dry port public private partnership, http://www.scribd.com/doc/27184217/Dry-Ports-Public-Private-Partnership.
- Shijiazhuang Daily. (2007) A brilliant future: Shijiazhuang dry port, http://yzwb.sjzdaily.com.cn/html/2007-12/11/content_62789.htm.
- SIPC. (2009) Shijiazhuang Inland Port Company Ltd, http://www.sipc.com.cn/.
- UNCTAD. (1982) Multimodal transport and containerisation. TD/B/C.4/238/Supplemnet 1, Part Five: Ports and Container Depots.Google Scholar
- UNESCAP. (2006a) Cross-Cutting Issue for Managing Globalization Related to Trade and Transport: Promoting Dry Ports as A Means of Sharing The Benefit of Globalization with Inland Locations. Bangkok, Thailand: UNESCAP.Google Scholar
- UNESCAP. (2006b) Promoting the Role of the Asian Highway and Trans-Asian Railway: Intermodal Interfaces as Focus for Development. Bangkok, Thailand: UNESCAP.Google Scholar
- UNESCAP. (2009a) A Guidebook on Public-Private Partnership in Infrastructure. Bangkok, Thailand: UNESCAP.Google Scholar
- UNESCAP. (2009b) Impact of Trade Facilitation on Export Competitiveness: A Regional Perspective. Bangkok, Thailand: UNESCAP.Google Scholar
- UNESCAP and Korea Maritime Institute. (2008) Logistics Sector Developments: Planning Models for Enterprises and Logistics Clusters. Bangkok, Thailand: UNESCAP.Google Scholar
- Wang, C.-H. and Wei, J.-Y. (2008) Research on the dry port location of Tianjin Port based on analytical network process. in 2008 International Seminar on Business and Information Management, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=05117434.
- World Bank. (2003) Port Reform Toolkit, Module 3 – Alternative Port Management Structures and Ownership Models. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
- Xiao, Z. (2009) The railway is likely to more harm than good in Yangshan Island, http://www.shgk.org.cn/zazhi_text_in.asp?Id=420&cpid=138, accessed 15 July 2010.Google Scholar
- XITLP. (2010a) Organization structure, http://www.itl.gov.cn/structure/zjgjg/zzjg/zzjg.htm.
- XITLP. (2010b) Preferential policy for investors in boned zone area, http://www.itl.gov.cn/structure/zsyz/zszc/zszczw_13213_1.htm.
- XITLP. (2010c) Preferential policies on boned zone of XITLP, http://www.itl.gov.cn/structure/zsyz/zszc/zszczw_13207_1.htm, accessed 15 July 2010.
- XITLP. (2010d) Preferential policies on inspection and quarantine of XITLP, http://www.itl.gov.cn/structure/zsyz/zszc/zszczw_13211_1.htm.
- XITLP. (2010e) Preferential policies for foreign investors, http://www.itl.gov.cn/structure/zsyz/zszc/zszczw_13053_1.htm.
- Yunnan. (2010) Achieving’ dry port’ function in Kunming export processing area, http://finance.yunnan.cn/html/2010-08/05/content_1290056.htm.
- Yin, R.K. (2002) Applications of Case Study Research, 2nd edn. London, UK: Sage Publication, pp. 6–8.Google Scholar