Advertisement

Journal of Public Health Policy

, Volume 36, Issue 3, pp 270–282 | Cite as

Controlling Nipah virus encephalitis in Bangladesh: Policy options

  • Jasmine Dhillon
  • Arinjay BanerjeeEmail author
Commentary

Abstract

Nipah virus (NiV) encephalitis is endemic in Bangladesh, with yearly seasonal outbreaks occurring since 2003. NiV has a notable case fatality rate, 75–100 per cent depending on the strain. In Bangladesh, primary transmission to humans is believed to be because of consumption of bat-contaminated date palm sap (DPS). Both the disease and the virus have been investigated extensively, however efforts to implement preventive strategies have met social and cultural challenges. Here we present a variety of community approaches to control the spread of Nipah encephalitis, along with advantages and disadvantages of each. This information may be useful to health workers and policymakers in potential NiV outbreak areas in Southeast Asia.

Keywords

Nipah virus control policy Bangladesh 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Vikram Misra, Kesiena Akpoigbe, Teresia Maina, Roshan Madalagama, Ellen Rafferty, Kurt Kreuger, Ibrahim Elsohaby, and Geetika Verma, contributed to our discussions. This study, part of the Integrated Training Program in Infectious Disease, Food Safety and Public Policy held at the University of Saskatchewan, was supported by a grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC).

References

  1. Mahmudur Rahman, A.C. (2012) Nipah virus outbreaks in Bangladesh: A deadly infectious disease. WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health 1 (2): 208–212.Google Scholar
  2. Ksiazek, T.G., Rota, P.A. and Rollin, P.E. (2011) A review of Nipah and Hendra viruses with an historical aside. Virus Research 162 (1–2): 173–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Field, H., Young, P., Yob, J.M., Mills, J., Hall, L. and Mackenzie, J. (2001) The natural history of Hendra and Nipah viruses. Microbes and Infection 3 (4): 307–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Wahed, F., Syed, A.K., Nessa, A. and Mahamud, M.d.M. (2011) Nipah virus: An emergent deadly paramyxovirus infection in Bangladesh. Journal of Bangladesh Society of Physiologist 6 (2): 134–139.Google Scholar
  5. Sazzad, H.M. et al (2013) Nipah virus infection outbreak with nosocomial and corpse-to-human transmission, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases 19 (2): 210–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Luby, S.P. et al (2006) Foodborne transmission of Nipah virus, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases 12 (12): 1888–1894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. World Health Organisation. (2012) Nipah virus outbreaks in the WHO South-East Asia Region, Surveillance and outbreak alert, http://www.searo.who.int/entity/emerging_diseases/links/nipah_virus_outbreaks_sear/en/, accessed 23 March 2015.
  8. Banerjee, A., Mor, S.M., Kok, J., Sorrell, T.C. and Hill-Cawthorne, G.A. (2014) Vulnerability, hysteria and fear – conquering Ebola virus. The Medical Journal of Australia 201 (6): 320–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blum, L.S., Rasheda, K., Nahar, N. and Breiman, R.F. (2009) In-depth assessment of an outbreak of Nipah encephalitis with person-to-person transmission in Bangladesh: Implications for prevention and control strategies. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 80 (1): 96–102.Google Scholar
  10. Homaira, N. et al (2010) Nipah virus outbreak with person-to-person transmission in a district of Bangladesh, 2007. Epidemiology and Infection 138 (11): 1630–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gurley, E. (2015) Ecological determinants of Nipah virus risk in Bangladesh: The convergence of people, bats, trees and a tasty drink. Paper presented in the 3rd International One Health Conference; 17 March, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  12. Gurley, E.S. et al (2007) Person-to-person transmission of Nipah virus in a Bangladeshi community. Emerging Infectious Diseases 13 (7): 1031–1037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Luby, S.P., Gurley, E.S. and Hossain, M.J. (2009) Transmission of human infection with Nipah virus. Clinical Infectious Diseases 49 (11): 1743–1748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gurley, E.S. et al (2007) Risk of nosocomial transmission of Nipah virus in a Bangladesh hospital. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology,. 28 (6): 740–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Yob, J.M. et al (2001) Nipah virus infection in bats (order Chiroptera) in peninsular Malaysia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7 (3): 439–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Epstein, J. (2015) The Ecology of Nipah Virus in its Natural Reservoir, Pteropus giganteus, in Bangladesh. Paper presented in the 3rd International One Health Conference; 15–18 March, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  17. Lo, M.K. et al (2012) Characterization of Nipah virus from outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2008–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases 18 (2): 248–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Wacharapluesadee, S. et al (2005) Bat Nipah virus, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11 (12): 1949–1951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Reynes, J.M. et al (2005) Nipah virus in Lyle's flying foxes, Cambodia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11 (7): 1042–1047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bossart, K.N. et al (2012) A Hendra virus G glycoprotein subunit vaccine protects African green monkeys from Nipah virus challenge. Science Translational Medicine 4 (146): 146,107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Khan, S.U., Gurley, E.S., Hossain, M.J., Nahar, N., Sharker, M.A. and Luby, S.P. (2012) A randomized controlled trial of interventions to impede date palm sap contamination by bats to prevent Nipah virus transmission in Bangladesh. PLoS One 7 (8): e42689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nahar, N. et al (2013) Piloting the use of indigenous methods to prevent Nipah virus infection by interrupting bats' access to date palm sap in Bangladesh. Health Promotion International 28 (3): 378–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Donald, G. McNeil Jr. (2011) Bangladesh Bans Sale of Palm Sap After an Unusually Lethal Outbreak. The New York Times 22 March: D6.Google Scholar
  24. Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research. (2014) Nipah Infection in 2014, 11 February, http://www.iedcr.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=106, accessed March 23 2015.
  25. Moniruzzaman, U. (2013) Nipah still a major health concern. Dhaka Tribune 25 December, http://www.dhakatribune.com/health/2013/dec/25/nipah-still-major-health-concern, accessed 23 March 2015.
  26. ClinicalTrials.gov. (2013) Community Intervention to Prevent Nipah Spillover, 4 March, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT01811784, accessed March 17 2015.Google Scholar
  27. Laswell, H.D. (1999) The Science of Public Policy. The Evolution of the Policy Sciences. London: Routledge Publications.Google Scholar
  28. Clark, T.W., Stevenson, M.J., Ziegelmayer, K. and Rutherford, M.B. (2001) Species and Ecosystem Conservation: An Interdisciplinary Approach. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, pp. 253–276.Google Scholar
  29. Broder, C.C. et al (2013) A treatment for and vaccine against the deadly Hendra and Nipah viruses. Antiviral Research 100 (1): 8–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schatz, J. et al (2014) Twenty years of active bat rabies surveillance in Germany: A detailed analysis and future perspectives. Epidemiology and Infection 142 (6): 1155–1166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Turmelle, A.S., Jackson, F.R., Green, D., McCracken, G.F and Rupprecht, C.E. (2010) Host immunity to repeated rabies virus infection in big brown bats. Journal of General Virology 91 (Pt 9): 2360–2366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Large Animal Clinical SciencesWestern College of Veterinary Medicine, University of SaskatchewanCanada
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary MicrobiologyWestern College of Veterinary Medicine, University of SaskatchewanCanada

Personalised recommendations