Smoking in prisons: The need for effective and acceptable interventions
- 153 Downloads
Tobacco-smoking prevalence has been decreasing in many high-income countries, but not in prison. We provide a summary of recent data on smoking in prison (United States, Australia, and Europe), and discuss examples of implemented policies for responding to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), their health, humanitarian, and ethical aspects. We gathered data through a systematic literature review, and added the authors’ ongoing experience in the implementation of smoking policies outside and inside prisons in Australia and Europe. Detainees’ smoking prevalence varies between 64 per cent and 91.8 per cent, and can be more than three times as high as in the general population. Few data are available on the prevalence of smoking in women detainees and staff. Policies vary greatly. Bans may either be ‘total’ or ‘partial’ (smoking allowed in cells or designated places). A comprehensive policy strategy to reduce ETS needs a harm minimization philosophy, and should include environmental restrictions, information, and support to detainees and staff for smoking cessation, and health staff training in smoking cessation.
Keywordstobacco smoking policy prison ban
- Tielking, K., Becker, S. and Stöver, H. (2003) Entwicklung gesundheitsfördern der Angebote im Justizvollzug: Eine Untersuchung zur gesundheitlichen Lage von Inhaftierten der Justizvollzugsanstalt Oldenburg.Google Scholar
- Department of Health and HM Prison Service. (2007) Acquitted – Best practice guidance for developing smoking cessation services in prisons. London, http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_4005383, accessed 23 April 2010.
- Department of Health South West Regional PHG. (2007) Implementation of Smoke Free Prison Service Instruction: Survey of Prisons in the South West Region. Final Results (Report by Mary-Ann McKibben).Google Scholar
- Narkauskaite, L., Juozulynas, A., Mackiewicz, Z., Surkiene, G. and Prapiestis, J. (2007) The prevalence of psychotropic substance use and its influencing factors in Lithuanian penitentiaries. Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research 13 (3): CR131–CR135.Google Scholar
- Chavez, R., Oto-Kent, D., Porter, J., Brown, K., Quirk, L. and Lewis, S. (2005) Tobacco Policy, Cessation, and Education in Correctional Facilities. Chicago, IL: National Commission on Correctional Health Care and National Network on Tobacco Prevention and Poverty.Google Scholar
- D'Souza, R.M., Butler, T. and Petrovsky, N. (2005) Assessment of cardiovascular disease risk factors and diabetes mellitus in Australian prisons: Is the prisoner population unhealthier than the rest of the Australian population? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 29 (4): 318–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- WHO. (2007) The European Tobacco Control Report 2007. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
- Heidari, E., Dickinson, C., Wilson, R. and Fiske, J. (2007) Oral health of remand prisoners in HMP Brixton, London. British Dental Journal 202 (2): E5.Google Scholar
- SPS. (2008) 11th Prisoner Survey. Edingburgh, UK: Scottish Prison Service (SPS).Google Scholar
- Sannier, O., Gignon, M., Defouilloy, C., Hermant, A., Manaouil, C. and Jardé, O. (2009) Dépistage de l'asthme et de la bronchopneumopathie obstructive à la maison d'arrêt d'Amiens: étude préliminaire transversale [Obstructive lung diseases in a French prison: Results of systematic screening]. Revue de pneumologie clinique 65 (1): 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Palmer, J. (2007) Special health requirements for female prisoners. In: L. Møller, H. Stöver, R. Jürgens, A. Gatherer and H. Nikogosian (eds.) Health in Prisons: A WHO Guide to the Essentials in Prison Health. Copenhagen: World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, pp. 157–170, http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/99018/E90174.pdf, accessed 27 November 2010.Google Scholar
- Office of the Inspector of Custodial Services. (2008) Issue paper 1: Smoking in prison, p. 1, http://www.custodialinspector.wa.gov.au/go/publications-and-resources/issues-papers, accessed 24 April 2010.
- Levy, M. (2010) Prisons: Issues to ponder. Of Substance 8 (1): 12–13, http://www.ofsubstance.org.au/images/archive/pdf/ofsubstance_2010_1.pdf, accessed 27 November 2010.Google Scholar
- Queensland Government CS. (2009) Custodial anti-smoking policy and implementation plan 2009–2011, http://www.correctiveservices.qld.gov.au/Resources/Procedures/Support_Services/Documents/spsprosmoking.shtml#4, accessed 23 April 2010.
- HM Prison service. (2007) Smoke free legislation: Prison service application, http://psi.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/PSI_07_09_smoke_free_legislation.doc, accessed 3 May 2010.Google Scholar
- NIPS. (2007) Smoking Policy. Belfast, UK: Northern Ireland Prison Service (NIPS).Google Scholar
- MacAskill, S. and Hayton, P. (2007) Stop smoking support in HM prisons: The impact of nicotine replacement therapy, Includes Best Practice Checklist. Stirling, London: University of Stirling, Open University and Centre for Tobacco Control Research.Google Scholar
- MacAskill, S. and Eadie, D. (2002) Evaluation of a Pilot Project on Smoking Cessation in Prisons. Final report, The University of Strathclyde, http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_4034349.pdf, accessed 3 March 2010.
- Convention. (1949) Geneva Convention (IV) relative to the protection of civilian persons in time of war. 12 August, http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/FULL/380?OpenDocument, accessed 14 April 2010.
- Commentary. (1949) Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Geneva. Commentary Part III: Status and treatment of protected persons #Section IV: Regulations for the treatment of internees #Chapter III: Food and clothing Art. 89. 12 August, http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/WebPrint/380-600100-COM?OpenDocument, accessed 14 April 2010.
- NIPS. (2007) Smoking Policy. Belfast, UK: Northern Ireland Prison Service (NIPS), http://www.niprisonservice.gov.uk/module.cfm/opt/5/area/Publications/page/publications/archive/true/year/2009/month/3/cid/0/cid/19, accessed 14 April 2010.
- Coyle, A. (2007) Standard in prison health: The prisoner as a patient. In: L. Møller, H. Stöver, R. Jürgens, A. Gatherer and H. Nikogosian (eds.) Health in Prisons: A WHO Guide to the Essentials in Prison Health. Copenhagen: Word Health Organisation, Regional Office for Europe, p. 7-13, http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/99018/E90174.pdf, accessed 27 November 2010.