Transit and Health: Mode of Transport, Employer-Sponsored Public Transit Pass Programs, and Physical Activity
- 184 Downloads
Increased provision of transit service and policy incentives that favor transit use can support a physically active lifestyle. We used the smartraq travel survey in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia (in 2001–2002) to assess whether transit and car trips were associated with meeting the recommended levels of physical activity by using walking as a means of transportation. Additionally, we assessed associations between walking and using an employer-sponsored public transit pass. We controlled for demographics, neighborhood density, presence of services near workplaces, distance from home to transit, and car availability in our sample of 4,156 completed surveys. Walking distances from origin to destination were derived by a geographical information system and categorized as: no walking, moderate walking, or meeting recommendation (walking⩾2.4 km (1.5 miles) a day, approximately⩾30 min). In a multinomial logistic regression controlling for other covariates, transit trips were associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.87 (confidence interval (CI) 95%, 2.93–5.11) of meeting recommendation. In a multinominal logistical regression controlling for other covariates, transit users were associated with meeting recommendation, OR 2.23 (CI 95%, 1.27–3.90).
Keywordspublic transit employer-sponsored transit pass walking density automobile availability
We acknowledge the financial support of the Bombardier Foundation who funded this analysis of the SMARTRAQ data. We also thank the Georgia Department of Transportation and the Georgia Regional Transportation Authority for funding the SMARTRAQ Project, and the collaboration with the Atlanta Regional Commission to collect the data.
- US Department of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Promotion; 1996, Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/sgr.htm, accessed 14 August 2008.
- Sallis JF, Frank LD, Saelens BE, Kraft MK . Active transportation and physical activity: opportunities for collaboration on transportation and public health research. Transport Res A: Pol Pract. 2004;38 (4):249–268.Google Scholar
- Transportation Research Board and Institute of Medicine. Does the Built Environment Influence Physical Activity? Examining the Evidence, TRB Special Report 282. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board; 2005, Available at http://onlinepubs.trb.org/Onlinepubs/sr/sr282.pdf, accessed 14 August 2008.
- Cervero RB . Walk-and-ride: factors influencing pedestrian access to transit. J Public Transport. 2001; 3 (4):1–23.Google Scholar
- US Department of Transportation. A Summary: Rebuilding America's Infrastructure TEA-21 – Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century; 2001. Available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tea21/suminfra.htm#tp, accessed 23 October 2008.
- Chapman J, Frank L . SMARTRAQ: Integrating Travel Behavior and Urban Form Data to Address Transportation Problems in Atlanta. Atlanta, GA: Georgia Tech Research Institute, Georgia Department of Transportation, US Department of Transportation; 2004, Available at http://www.act-trans.ubc.ca/smartraq/files/GDOT_final_report.pdf, accessed 14 August 2008.Google Scholar
- Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) Partnership Program, Available at http://www.itsmarta.com/partner/index.htm, accessed 23 October 2008.
- Transportation Research Board. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 2nd edition. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, Transit Cooperative Research Program; 2003, Available at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2326, accessed 14 August 2008.
- Chapman J, Frank L, Carpenter A . GDOT V.18 – Integrated Land Use, Travel Survey and Vehicle Emissions Data for 8,000 Household Survey Sample. Atlanta: Georgia Tech Research Institute; 2004.Google Scholar
- US Census Bureau. Census Tracts and Block Numbering Areas. 2000, Available at http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cen_tract.html, accessed 10 October 2008.
- Lachapelle U, Frank LD . In Bridging the devide: Celebrating the city. Employer sponsored public transit incentives in Atlanta, GA: winners, losers, users, and latent demand. Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning – Association of European Schools of Planning 4th Joint Congress; 2008 July 6–11; Chicago, IL. Available at http://www.uic.edu/cuppa/upp/congress/ACSP%20Book%20ALL.pdf, accessed 17 November 2008.
- Transportation Research Board. Analyzing the Effectiveness of Commuter Benefits Programs. Washington, DC: Transit Cooperative Research Program; 2005, Available at http://onlinepubs.trb.org/Onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_rpt_107.pdf, accessed 14 August 2008.