Advertisement

Journal of Public Health Policy

, Volume 29, Issue 4, pp 406–423 | Cite as

Tobacco Farmers and Tobacco Manufacturers: Implications for Tobacco Control in Tobacco-Growing Developing Countries

  • Alison Snow Jones
  • W David Austin
  • Robert H Beach
  • David G Altman
Article

Abstract

Assisting tobacco farmers to transition to non-tobacco alternatives is a key element of comprehensive tobacco control's end-game strategy and specifically required by the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). We examine the historical relationship between tobacco manufacturers and tobacco farmers in the United States, where the duration of the relationship has been longest and use information obtained to inform possible end-game strategies for tobacco control advocates working with tobacco farmers in developing countries. Tobacco Documents obtained under the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) provide evidence of conflicts between tobacco manufacturers and tobacco farmers. Findings support WHO FCTC articles aimed at helping developing country tobacco farmers adversely affected by tobacco control efforts and highlight difficulties in discouraging tobacco cultivation as long as it remains relatively profitable. We conclude that successful end-game strategies should take a long-term approach aimed at building alliances with tobacco farmers and at creating mechanisms for tobacco farmer investment in local infrastructure.

Keywords

tobacco control tobacco farmers tobacco industry tobacco documents developing countries 

References

  1. National Association of Attorneys General. Master Settlement Agreement. naag.org, 1998. Available at http://www.naag.org/backpages/naag/tobacco/msa/msa-pdf/1109185724_1032468605_cigmsa.pdf.
  2. Slade J, Bero LA, Hanauer P, Barnes DE, Glantz SA . Nicotine and addiction – the Brown-and-Williamson documents. JAMA. 1995;274 (3):225–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnes DE, Hanauer P, Slade J, Bero LA, Glantz SA . Environmental tobacco-smoke – the Brown-and-Williamson documents. JAMA. 1995;274 (3):248–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. WHO. Tobacco Company Strategies to Undermine Tobacco Control Activities at the World Health Organization, Paper WHO7. WHO; 2 August 2000. 15 August 2007. Available at http://repositories.cdlib.org/tc/whotcp/WHO7/.
  5. Jacobs R, Gale HF, Capehart Tobacco Control, Zhang P, Jha P . The supply-side effects of tobacco-control policies. In: Jha P, Chaloupka FJ, editors. Tobacco Control in Developing Countries. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press; 2000, p. 311–341.Google Scholar
  6. Hammond R, Rowell A . Trust us…We’re the Tobacco Industry. Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids, Washington, DC; 2001. 19 March 2007. Available at http://tobaccofreekids.org/campaign/global/framework/docs/TrustUs.pdf.
  7. Must E . International Tobacco Growers (ITGA) Uncovered: Unraveling the Spin – The Truth Behind the Claims. PATH Canada Guide; 2001. 15 August 2007. Available at http://www.healthbridge.ca/assets/images/pdf/Tobacco/Publications/itgabr.pdf.
  8. BAT. J. Bloxcidge, Fax to Board Members. Bates No.: 502555416-502555417; 11 October 1988. Available at http://bat.library.ucsf.edu/tid/sik47a99.
  9. Great Britain. Foreign and Commonwealth Office. WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. London: Stationery Office 2005. Available at http://www.who.int/tobacco/framework/WHO_FCTC_english.pdf.
  10. Baris E, Brigden LW, Prindiville J, da Costa e Silva VL, Chitanondh H, Chandiwana S . Research priorities for tobacco control in developing countries: a regional approach to a global consultative process. Tob Control. 2000;9 (2):217–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jha P . Curbing the Epidemic: Governments and the Economics of Tobacco Control. Washington, DC: World Bank; 1999, p. 58.Google Scholar
  12. Tobacco.org 2007. 10 April 2007. Available at http://www.tobacco.org/articles/country/zambia.
  13. Zimbabwe Democracy Trust 2007. 10 April 2007. Available at http://www.zimbabwedemocracytrust.org/outcomes/details?contentId=2039.
  14. Economist. Zim's Loss, Zam's Gain. Economist.com, 24 June 2004. 21 April 2007. Available at http://economist.com/world/africa/displaystory.cfm?story_id=E1_NSJSDSS.
  15. Wright AA, Katz IT . Tobacco tightrope – balancing disease prevention and economic development in China. N Engl J Med. 2007;356 (15):1493–1496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids. Golden Leaf/Barren Harvest – The Costs of Tobacco Farming. Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids, 19. 2001. Available at http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/campaign/global/FCTCreport1.pdf.
  17. Philip Morris. Company Market Share. Bates No.: 2043234993; 1994. Available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/wes83e00.
  18. Becker GS . Farm Commodity Legislation; Chronology, 1933–2002. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress. Order Code 96-900ENR. The National Agricultural Law Center. 31 May 2002. Available at http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/crs/96-900.pdf.
  19. Legacy Tobacco Documents Library. Philip Morris Glossary of Names, University of California, San Francisco. Legacy Tobacco Documents Library; 2007. 16 April 2007. Available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/glossaries/pm_gloss_a.jsp.
  20. Dowdell JS . Tobacco Grower Relations. Internal RJ Reynolds Memo to WD Hobbs and FH Christopher. Bates No.: 500000418/0422; 9 March 1977. Available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/vpj99d00.
  21. Borio G . Tobacco Timeline: The Twentieth Century 1900–1949 – The Rise of The Cigarette. Tobacco.org, 2001. Available at http://www.tobacco.org/resources/history/Tobacco_History20-1.html.
  22. Culver C . Farm Bill Definitions Excerpted from the Glossary of Agricultural Production, Programs, and Policy. The National Agricultural Law Center; 2007. 27 March 2007. Available at http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/farmbills/glossary.html.
  23. Chaloupka FJ, Warner KE . The Economics of Smoking. NBER Working Paper Series Working Paper 7047; 1999. National Bureau of Economic Research: Cambridge, MA; 21 April 2007. Available at http://www.nber.org/papers/w7047.
  24. Babcock BA, Foster WE . Economic rents under supply controls with marketable quota. Am J Agric Econ. 1992;74 (3):630–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Burch LE, Jones ST, Tedder DR . A Study of the Tobacco Price Support Program and Some Alternatives for the Future of the Program. Bates No.: 89695972/5990; 12 November 1981. Available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/BYV98c00.
  26. Ainsworth EW . Tobacco Support Program – A Review. Confidential RJ Reynolds Memorandum. Bates No.: 500909516/9521; 11 March 1983. Available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/KUS59D00.
  27. Wynder EL, Graham EA . Tobacco smoking as a possible etiologic factor in bronchiogenic carcinoma: a study of 684 proved cases. J AM Med Assoc. 1950;143 (4):329–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Doll R, Hill AB . The mortality of doctors in relation to their smoking habits: a preliminary report. BMJ. 1954;228 (i):1454–1455.Google Scholar
  29. Levi MI, Gerhardt PR . Cancer and tobacco smoking. J AM Med Assoc. 1950;143:336–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wynder EL, Graham EA . Experimental production of carcinoma with cigarette tar. Cancer Res. 1953;13 (12):855–864.Google Scholar
  31. Philip Morris. Washington Relations Office Issues Briefing Book. Bates No.: 2024966379A/6520; 1985. Available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/BCL87E00.
  32. Capehart Tobacco Control. U.S. Tobacco Industry Responding to New Competitors, New Challenges. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service; 2003. Available at http://www.ers.usda.gov/AmberWaves/scripts/print.asp?pages/September03/Features/USTobaccoIndustry.html.
  33. Capehart T . U.S. Tobacco Import Update 2003/04. Electronic Outlook Report from the USDA Economic Research Service (September) TBS-259-01; 2005. Available at http://www.ers.usda.gov/Publications/TBS/Sep05/tbs25901/.
  34. Cullman H . Partners in Progress: A Report on Philip Morris in the Developing Countries. Bates No. 2015006022/6039; 1977. New York, Corporate Affairs Departobacco Manufacturersent, Philip Morris. 30 April 2007. Available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ksk68e00.
  35. Lindblom E . False Friends: The US Cigarette Companies’ Betrayal of American Tobacco Farmers. Report to the American Heart Association, American Cancer Society, and Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids; 1999. 31 May 2006. Available at http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/reports/falsefriends/campaign.pdf.
  36. Funding Universe. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Holdings, Inc. Company History. Funding Universe.com; 2000. 31 May 2006. Available at http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/RJ-Reynolds-Tobacco-Holdings-Inc-Company-History.html.
  37. Mackey R . Speech by Ray Mackey, President, Kentucky Farm Bureau Federation to the National Tobacco Council. Bates No.: 88091342/1352; 24 February 1984. Available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/IHL90E00.
  38. Chaloupka FJ, Nair R . International issues in the supply of tobacco: recent changes and implications for alcohol. Addiction. 2000;95 (Suppl. 4):S477–S489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Smith O, Presentation by President of Philip Morris International, at PMI's Tobacco and the 104th Congress Conference, Charlotte, North Carolina. Philip Morris document number 2046975979-82, 2046975988; 1995. Available at www.pmdocs.com.
  40. Kuegel R, Burley Tobacco Growers Association. (Letter from Rod Kuegel, President, Burley Tobacco Growers Cooperative Association, to Rob Kornegay, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company). Bates No.: 522475630/5631; 8 May 1995. Available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/vwo60D00.
  41. Reaves DW . Economics Impacts of Tobacco Industry Changes on Producers and Their Communities: Challenges and Opportunities. Department of Agricultural & Applied Economics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Report Prepared for the Community Affairs Office, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond; 1999.Google Scholar
  42. Southern Tobacco Communities Project. Core Principles Statement Between the Public Health Community and the Tobacco Producers Community. 28 January 1998. Available at http://virginia.edu/ien/tobacco/CorePrinciplesSummary.html.
  43. Altobacco manufacturersan DG Zaccaro DJ, Levine DW, Austin D, Woodell C, Bailey B, et al. Predictors of crop diversification: a survey of tobacco farmers in North Carolina (USA). Tob Control. 1998;7 (4):376–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cohen JE, Milio N, Rozier RG, Ferrence R, Ashley MJ, Goldstein AO . Political ideology and tobacco control. Tob Control. 2000;9 (3):263–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Capehart T . Trends in U.S. Tobacco Farming. Electronic Outlook Report from the USDA Economic Research Service TBS-257-02; 2004. Available at http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/tbs/nov04/tbs25702/.
  46. Etter L . U.S. farmers rediscover the allure of tobacco. Wall Stree Journal. 2007 18 September.Google Scholar
  47. FAO. Projections of Tobacco Production, Consumption and Trade to the Year 2010. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome; 2003. 15 May 2007. Available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/Y4956E/y4956e00.HTM.
  48. Chaloupka FJ, Hu T, Jacobs R, Yurekli A . The taxation of tobacco products. In: Jha P, Chaloupka FJ, editors. Tobacco Control in Developing Countries. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press; 2000, p. 237–272.Google Scholar
  49. Keyser JC, The Costs and Profitability of Tobacco Compared to Other Crops in Zimbabwe, Economics of Tobacco Control Paper No. 1 HNP Discussion Paper; June 2002. 18 September 2007. Available at http://www1.worldbank.org/tobacco/pdf/Keyser-%20The%20Costs%20and%20Profitability-whole%20.pdf.
  50. Ritchie A . Community-Based Financial Organizations: A Solution to Access in Remote Rural Areas? World Bank Agricultural and Rural Development Discussion Paper No. 34; 2007. Washington, DC: World Bank; 28 April 2007. Available at http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTARD/Resources/combasedfinance.pdf.
  51. Loewenberg S . Smoke Screen: Why is Philip Morris Supporting FDA Regulation of Cigarettes? Slate. 25 July 2002. Available at http://www.slate.com/?id=2068476.

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alison Snow Jones
    • 1
  • W David Austin
    • 2
  • Robert H Beach
    • 2
  • David G Altman
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Social Sciences and Health PolicyWake Forest University School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA
  2. 2.RTI International, Research Triangle ParkUSA
  3. 3.Center for Creative LeadershipGreensboroUSA

Personalised recommendations