Advertisement

Foreign policy analysis, globalisation and non-state actors: state-centric after all?

  • Rainer Baumann
  • Frank A Stengel
Article

Abstract

This paper is concerned with Foreign Policy Analysis (FPA) and non-state actors (NSAs). Globalisation has brought NSAs back on the agenda of International Relations (IR). As a result of globalisation, we witness at least some shift of authority from the state to NSAs (the extent of which remains debated). Although most of the empirical studies focus on ‘domestic’ issues, there are good reasons to assume that foreign policy is equally affected by this trend. Not only are NSAs autonomous actors in world politics, they are also increasingly involved in the making of states’ foreign policies. In this article, we ask to what extent FPA, IR's actor-centric sub-field, has taken into account this growing importance of NSAs. Given FPA's criticism of seeing the state as a unitary actor, one would expect FPA scholars to be among the first within IR to analyse decision making involving NSAs. However, a closer look reveals that FPA remains focused mainly on state actors, while ignoring private, transnational and international ones. Thus, FPA remains in a way state-centric. We close with an outline of possible directions for further FPA research.

Keywords

Foreign Policy Analysis foreign policy decision making globalisation international organisations intergovernmental networks non-state actors 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Previous versions of this article were presented at the 51st Annual Convention of the International Studies Association in New Orleans, LA, USA, February 2010, and the 7th Pan-European Conference of the ECPR Standing Group on IR in Stockholm, September 2010. We thank three anonymous reviewers, the JIRD editors, Jesse Crane-Seeber, Philipp Genschel, Valerie Hudson, Johannes Kruse and Bernhard Zangl for their most helpful comments. Marion Dossner, Annegret Kunde and Anca Gabriela Scurtu provided valuable research assistance, which is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. Abbott, Kenneth W. and Duncan Snidal (1998) ‘Why States Act through Formal International Organizations’, Journal of Conflict Resolution 42 (1): 3–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agbonifo, John (2011) ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: An Oversocialised View of Multinational Corporations in Africa?’ Journal of International Relations and Development 14 (1): 126–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agnew, John (1994) ‘The Territorial Trap: The Geographical Assumptions of International Relations Theory’, Review of International Political Economy 1 (1): 53–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allison, Graham T. and Morton H. Halperin (1972) ‘Bureaucratic Politics: A Paradigm and Some Policy Implications’, World Politics 24 (1): 40–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allison, Graham T. and Philip Zelikow (1999) Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis, 2nd edn., New York, NY: Longman.Google Scholar
  6. Aran, Amnon (2011) ‘Foreign Policy and Globalization Theory: The Case of Israel’, International Politics 48 (6): 707–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Austin, Greg, Emery Brusset, Malcolm Chalmers and Juliet Pierce (2004) Evaluation of the Conflict Prevention Pools: Synthesis Report, London: Department for International Development.Google Scholar
  8. Avant, Deborah D. (2004) ‘The Privatization of Security and Change in the Control of Force’, International Studies Perspectives 5 (2): 153–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bennett, Andrew, Barth Aharon and Kenneth R. Rutherford (2003) ‘Do We Preach What We Practice? A Survey of Methods in Political Science Journals and Curricula’, PS: Political Science and Politics 36 (3): 373–378.Google Scholar
  10. Bensahel, Nora (2007) ‘Organising for Nation Building’, Survival 49 (2): 43–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bergen, Peter L. (2001) Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama Bin Laden, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.Google Scholar
  12. Breslin, Shaun (2004) ‘Beyond Diplomacy? UK Relations with China since 1997’, British Journal of Politics & International Relations 6 (3): 409–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Breuning, Marijke (2007) Foreign Policy Analysis: A Comparative Introduction, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Breuning, Marijke, Joseph Bredehoft and Eugene Walton (2005) ‘Promise and Performance: An Evaluation of Journals in International Relations’, International Studies Perspectives 6 (4): 447–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Breuning, Marijke and Kathryn Sanders (2007) ‘Gender and Journal Authorship in Eight Prestigious Political Science Journals’, PS: Political Science & Politics 40 (2): 347–351.Google Scholar
  16. Brighi, Elisabetta and Christopher Hill (2008) ‘Implementation and Behaviour’, in Steve Smith, Amelia Hadfield and Tim Dunne, eds, Foreign Policy: Theories, Actors, Cases, 117–35, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Brulé, David J. (2008) ‘The Poliheuristic Research Program: An Assessment and Suggestions for Further Progress’, International Studies Review 10 (2): 266–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brummer, Klaus (2013) ‘The Reluctant Peacekeeper: Governmental Politics and Germany's Participation in EUFOR RD Congo’, Foreign Policy Analysis 9 (1): 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bulkeley, Harriet and Heike Schroeder (2011) ‘Beyond State/Non-state Divides: Global Cities and the Governing of Climate Change’, European Journal of International Relations 18 (4): 743–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Byman, Daniel L. and Kenneth M. Pollack (2001) ‘Let Us Now Praise Great Men: Bringing the Statesman Back In’, International Security 25 (4): 107–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cardenas, Sonia (2009) ‘Mainstreaming Human Rights: Publishing Trends in Political Science’, PS: Political Science & Politics 42 (1): 161–166.Google Scholar
  22. Carlsnaes, Walter (2002) ‘Foreign Policy’, in Walter Carlsnaes, Thomas Risse and Beth A. Simmons, eds, Handbook of International Relations, 331–49, London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Carlsnaes, Walter, Helene Sjursen and Brian White, eds, (2004) Contemporary European Foreign Policy, London: Sage.Google Scholar
  24. Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict (1997) Preventing Deadly Conflict: Final Report, Washington DC: Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict.Google Scholar
  25. Chong, Alan (2002) ‘The Post-international Challenge to Foreign Policy: Signposting ‘Plus Non-state’ Politics’, Review of International Studies 28 (4): 783–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cohen, Michael A. and Maria Figueroa Küpçü (2005) ‘Privatizing Foreign Policy’, World Policy Journal 22 (3): 34–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cohn, Lindsay P. (2011) ‘It Wasn’t in My Contract: Security Privatization and Civilian Control’, Armed Forces & Society 37 (3): 381–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cooley, Alexander and James Ron (2002) ‘The NGO Scramble: Organizational Insecurity and the Political Economy of Transnational Action’, International Security 27 (1): 5–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Crichlow, Scott (2005) ‘Psychological Influences on the Policy Choices of Secretaries of State and Foreign Ministers’, Cooperation and Conflict 40 (2): 179–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cutler, A.Claire, Virginia Haufler and Tony Porter, eds, (1999) Private Authority and International Affairs, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  31. Debiel, Tobias and Monika Sticht (2005) Towards a New Profile? Development, Humanitarian and Conflict-resolution NGOs in the Age of Globalization, Duisburg: Institute for Development and Peace.Google Scholar
  32. Dickinson, Laura A. (2011) Outsourcing War and Peace: Preserving Public Values in a World of Privatized Foreign Affairs, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Drury, A., Cooper, Mary Caprioli, Axel Huelsemeyer, Erin K. Jenne and James M. Scott (2010) ‘Note from the Editors’, Foreign Policy Analysis 6 (3): 187–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dyson, Tom (2011) ‘“Condemned Forever to Becoming and Never to Being”? The Weise Commission and German Military Isomorphism’, German Politics 20 (4): 545–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Enderlein, Henrik, Sonja Wälti and Michael Zürn, eds, (2010) Handbook on Multi-Level Governance, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. EUISS (2010) Global Governance 2025: At a Critical Juncture, Paris: European Union Institute for Strategic Studies.Google Scholar
  37. Fassin, Yves and Annick Van Rossem (2009) ‘Corporate Governance in the Debate on CSR and Ethics: Sensemaking of Social Issues in Management by Authorities and CEOs’, Corporate Governance: An International Review 17 (5): 573–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Foyle, Douglas C. (2003) ‘Foreign Policy Analysis and Globalisation: Public Opinion, World Opinion, and the Individual’, International Studies Review 5 (2): 163–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Foyle, Douglas C. and Douglas van Belle (2010) ‘Domestic Politics and Foreign Policy Analysis: Public Opinion, Elections, Interest Groups, and the Media’, in Robert A. Denemark, ed. The International Studies Encyclopedia, Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  40. Garrison, Jean A. (2010) ‘Small Group Effects on Foreign Policy Decision Making’, in Robert A. Denemark, ed. The International Studies Encyclopedia, Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  41. Gearson, John and James Gow (2010) ‘Security, Not Defence, Strategic, Not Habit: Restructuring the Political Arrangements for Policy Making on Britain's Role in the World’, The Political Quarterly 81 (3): 406–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Genschel, Philipp and Bernhard Zangl (2008) ‘Metamorphosen des Staates — vom Herrschaftsmonopolisten zum Herrschaftsmanager’, Leviathan 36 (3): 430–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Genschel, Philipp and Bernhard Zangl (2011) ‘L’état et l’exercice de l’autorité politique: dénationalisation et administration’, Revue française de sociologie 52 (3): 509–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gilpin, Robert (2000) The Challenge of Global Capitalism: The World Economy in the 21st Century, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Goldgeier, James M. (2010) ‘Foreign Policy Decision Making’, in Robert A. Denemark, ed. The International Studies Encyclopedia, Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  46. Greenstein, Fred I. (1967) ‘The Impact of Personality on Politics: An Attempt to Clear Away the Underbrush’, American Political Science Review 61 (3): 629–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hajer, Maarten A. (2005) ‘Coalitions, Practices, and Meaning in Environmental Politics: From Acid Rain to BSE’, in David Howarth and Jacob Torfing, eds, Discourse Theory in European Politics, 297–315, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Haney, Patrick J. and Walt Vanderbush (1999) ‘The Role of Ethnic Interest Groups in U.S. Foreign Policy: The Case of the Cuban American National Foundation’, International Studies Quarterly 43 (2): 341–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hatemi, Peter K. and Rose McDermott (2012) ‘A Neurobiological Approach to Foreign Policy Analysis: Identifying Individual Differences in Political Violence’, Foreign Policy Analysis 8 (2): 111–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hay, Colin (2002) Political Analysis: A Critical Introduction, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hellmann, Gunther (2009a) ‘Fatal Attraction? German Foreign Policy and IR/Foreign Policy Theory’, Journal of International Relations and Development 12 (3): 257–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hellmann, Gunther (2009b) ‘Introduction: IR/Foreign Policy Theory and German Foreign Policy’, Journal of International Relations and Development 12 (3): 251–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hermann, Charles F., Janice Gross Stein, Bengt Sundelius and Stephen G. Walker (2001a) ‘Resolve, Accept, or Avoid: Effects of Group Conflict on Foreign Policy Decisions’, International Studies Review 3 (2): 133–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hermann, Margaret G. (2001) ‘How Decision Units Shape Foreign Policy: A Theoretical Framework’, International Studies Review 3 (Special Issue): 47–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hermann, Margaret G. (2005) ‘Assessing Leadership Style: Trait Analysis’, in Jerrold M. Post, ed. The Psychological Assessment of Political Leaders: With Profiles of Saddam Hussein and Bill Clinton, 178–214, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  56. Hermann, Margaret G., Thomas Preston, Baghat Korany and Timothy M. Shaw (2001b) ‘Who Leads Matters: The Effects of Powerful Individuals’, International Studies Review 3 (Special Issue): 83–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Herschinger, Eva, Markus Jachtenfuchs and Christiane Kraft-Kasack (2011) ‘Scratching the Heart of the Artichoke? How International Institutions and the EU Constrain the State Monopoly of Force’, European Political Science Review 3 (3): 445–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Heupel, Monika (2006) ‘Shadow Trade War Economies and Their Challenge to Peacebuilding’, Journal of International Relations and Development 9 (2): 140–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hill, Christopher (2003) The Changing Politics of Foreign Policy, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  60. Hill, Christopher (2010) ‘The Future of Foreign Policy Analysis’, in Robert A. Denemark, ed. The International Studies Encyclopedia, Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  61. Hollis, Simon (2010) ‘The Necessity of Protection: Transgovernmental Networks and EU Security Governance’, Cooperation and Conflict 45 (3): 312–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Houghton, David Patrick (2007) ‘Reinvigorating the Study of Foreign Policy Decision Making: Toward a Constructivist Approach’, Foreign Policy Analysis 3 (1): 24–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Howell, William G. and Jon C. Pevehouse (2005) ‘Presidents, Congress, and the Use of Force’, International Organization 59 (1): 209–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Howorth, Jolyon (2004) ‘Discourse, Ideas, and Epistemic Communities in European Security and Defence Policy’, West European Politics 27 (2): 211–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hudson, Valerie M. (2005) ‘Foreign Policy Analysis: Actor-specific Theory and the Ground of International Relations’, Foreign Policy Analysis 1 (1): 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hudson, Valerie M. (2007) Foreign Policy Analysis: Classic and Contemporary Theory, Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  67. Hudson, Valerie M. (2010) ‘Foreign Policy Analysis: Origins (1954–93) and Contestations’, in Robert A. Denemark, ed. The International Studies Encyclopedia, Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  68. Hudson, Valerie M., Philip A. Schrodt and Ray D. Whitmer (2008) ‘Discrete Sequence Rule Models as a Social Science Methodology: An Exploratory Analysis of Foreign Policy Rule Enactment within Palestinian — Israeli Event Data’, Foreign Policy Analysis 4 (2): 105–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hudson, Valerie M. and Christopher S. Vore (1995) ‘Foreign Policy Analysis Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow’, Mershon International Studies Review 39 (2): 209–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hülsse, Rainer (2007) ‘Creating Demand for Global Governance: The Making of a Global Money-Laundering Problem’, Global Society 21 (2): 155–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jacobs, An D. (2012) ‘EU Crisis Management in Berlin: The Fall of Ministerial Walls?’ West European Politics 35 (3): 466–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. James, Patrick and Enyu Zhang (2005) ‘Chinese Choices: A Poliheuristic Analysis of Foreign Policy Crises, 1950–1996’, Foreign Policy Analysis 1 (1): 31–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Janis, Irving L. (1972) Victims of Groupthink: A Psychological Study of Foreign-Policy Decisions and Fiascoes, Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  74. Jervis, Robert (2006) ‘Understanding Beliefs’, Political Psychology 27 (5): 641–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Joachim, Jutta and Matthias Dembinski (2011) ‘A Contradiction in Terms? NGOs, Democracy, and European Foreign and Security Policy’, Journal of European Public Policy 18 (8): 1151–1168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kaarbo, Juliet and Ryan K. Beasley (2008) ‘Take It to the Extreme: The Effect of Coalition Governments on Foreign Policy’, Foreign Policy Analysis 4 (1): 67–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kaarbo, Juliet and Margaret G. Hermann (1998) ‘Leadership Styles of Prime Ministers: How Individual Differences Affect the Foreign Policymaking Process’, The Leadership Quarterly 9 (3): 243–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Keck, Margaret E. and Kathryn Sikkink (1998) Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Keohane, Robert O. and Joseph S.Jr. Nye (2001) Power and Interdependence, 3rd edn., New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  80. Kitschelt, Herbert P. (1986) ‘Political Opportunity Structures and Political Protest: Anti-Nuclear Movements in Four Democracies’, British Journal of Political Science 16 (1): 57–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Krotz, Ulrich (2010) ‘Regularized Intergovernmentalism: France–Germany and Beyond (1963–2009)’, Foreign Policy Analysis 6 (2): 147–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kundnani, Hans (2011) ‘Germany as a Geo-economic Power’, The Washington Quarterly 34 (3): 31–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Larsen, Henrik (2009) ‘A Distinct FPA for Europe? Towards a Comprehensive Framework for Analysing the Foreign Policy of EU Member States’, European Journal of International Relations 15 (3): 537–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Leander, Anna (2005) ‘The Market for Force and Public Security: The Destabilizing Consequences of Private Military Companies’, Journal of Peace Research 42 (5): 605–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lee, Donna (2004) ‘The Growing Influence of Business in U.K. Diplomacy’, International Studies Perspectives 5 (1): 50–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Leibfried, Stephan and Michael Zürn, eds (2005) Transformations of the State? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Maliniak, Daniel, Amy Oakes, Susan Peterson and Michael J. Tierney (2011) ‘International Relations in the US Academy’, International Studies Quarterly 55 (2): 437–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mayer, Sebastian (2011) ‘Embedded Politics, Growing Informalization? How NATO and the EU Transform Provision of External Security’, Contemporary Security Policy 32 (2): 308–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. McDermott, Rose (2009) ‘Mutual Interests: The Case for Increasing Dialogue between Political Science and Neuroscience’, Political Research Quarterly 62 (3): 571–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mead, Lawrence M. (2010) ‘Scholasticism in Political Science’, Perspectives on Politics 8 (2): 453–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Milne, David (2010) ‘America's “Intellectual” Diplomacy’, International Affairs 86 (1): 49–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mintz, Alex, ed. (2003) Integrating Cognitive and Rational Theories of Foreign Policy Decision Making, New York/Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Mintz, Alex (2004) ‘How Do Leaders Make Decisions?: A Poliheuristic Perspective’, Journal of Conflict Resolution 48 (1): 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Mintz, Alex, J.Tyson Chatagnier and David J. Brulé (2006) ‘Being Bin Laden: An Applied Decision Analysis Procedure for Analyzing and Predicting Terrorists’ Decisions’, in Ami Pedahzur, ed. Root Causes of Suicide Terrorism: The Globalization of Martyrdom, 152–78, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  95. Mintz, Alex and Karl R. DeRouen (2010) Understanding Foreign Policy Decision Making, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mintz, Alex and Steven B. Redd (2003) ‘Framing Effects in International Relations’, Synthese 135 (2): 193–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Munck, L. and Richard Snyder (2007) ‘Who Publishes in Comparative Politics? Studying the World from the United States’, PS: Political Science & Politics 40 (2): 339–346.Google Scholar
  98. Neumann, Iver B. (2012) At Home with the Diplomats: Inside a European Foreign Ministry, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Nölke, Andreas (2003) ‘The Relevance of Transnational Policy Networks: Some Examples from the European Commission and the Bretton Woods Institutions’, Journal of International Relations and Development 6 (3): 276–298.Google Scholar
  100. Ohmae, Kenichi (1995) The End of the Nation State: The Rise of Regional Economies, London: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  101. Olsen, Gorm Rye (2011) ‘Civil–Military Cooperation in Crisis Management in Africa: American and European Union Policies Compared’, Journal of International Relations and Development 14 (3): 333–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Olsson, Christian (2007) ‘The Politics of the Apolitical: Private Military Companies, Humanitarians and the Quest for (Anti-)Politics in Post-Intervention Environments’, Journal of International Relations and Development 10 (4): 332–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Oppermann, Kai and Dagmar Röttsches (2010) ‘NGOs as Catalysts for International Arms Control? The Ratification of the Chemical Weapons Convention and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty in the United States’, Journal of International Relations and Development 13 (3): 239–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Osiander, Andreas (2003) ‘Sovereignty, International Relations, and the Westphalian Myth’, International Organization 55 (2): 251–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Paul, David M. and Rachel Anderson Paul (2009) Ethnic Lobbies and US Foreign Policy, Boulder, CA: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  106. Payne, Kenneth (2009) ‘Winning the Battle of Ideas: Propaganda, Ideology, and Terror’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 32 (2): 109–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Pevehouse, Jon, Timothy Nordstrom and Kevin Warnke (2004) ‘The Correlates of War 2 International Governmental Organizations Data Version 2.0’, Conflict Management and Peace Science 21 (2): 101–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Porteous, Tom (2005) ‘British Government Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa under New Labour’, International Affairs 81 (2): 281–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Post, Jerrold M. (2005) The Psychological Assessment of Political Leaders: With Profiles of Saddam Hussein and Bill Clinton, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  110. Post, Jerrold M. (2010) ‘When Hatred Is Bred in the Bone: The Social Psychology of Terrorism’, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1208: 15–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Potter, Philip B.K. (2010) ‘Methods of Foreign Policy Analysis’, in Robert A. Denemark ed. The International Studies Encyclopedia, Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  112. Redd, Steven B. (2005) ‘The Influence of Advisers and Decision Strategies on Foreign Policy Choices: President Clinton's Decision to Use Force in Kosovo’, International Studies Perspectives 6 (1): 129–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Reinicke, Wolfgang H. and Francis Deng (2000) Critical Choices: The United Nations, Networks, and the Future of Global Governance, Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
  114. Reiter, Howard L. (2006) ‘The Study of Political Parties, 1906–2005: The View from the Journals’, American Political Science Review 100 (4): 613–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Renshon, Jonathan and Stanley A. Renshon (2008) ‘The Theory and Practice of Foreign Policy Decision Making’, Political Psychology 29 (4): 509–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Rhodes, R.A.W. (2007) ‘Understanding Governance: Ten Years On’, Organization Studies 28 (8): 1243–1264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Risse-Kappen, Thomas, ed. (1995) ‘Bringing Transnational Relations Back In: Introduction’, Bringing Transnational Relations Back In: Non-State Actors, Domestic Structures and International Institutions, 3–33, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Risse, Thomas (2002) ‘Transnational Actors and World Politics’, in Walter Carlsnaes, Thomas Risse and Beth A. Simmons, eds, Handbook of International Relations, 255–74, London: Sage.Google Scholar
  119. Rittberger, Volker, Bernhard Zangl and Andreas Kruck (2013) Internationale Organisationen, Wiesbaden: Springer VS.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Robins, Nick (2002) ‘Loot: In Search of the East India Company, the World's First Transnational Corporation’, Environment and Urbanization 14 (1): 79–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Robinson, Piers (2011) ‘The CNN Effect Reconsidered: Mapping a Research Agenda for the Future’, Media, War & Conflict 4 (3): 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Rosati, Jerel A. and Colleen E. Miller (2010) ‘Political Psychology, Cognition, and Foreign Policy Analysis’, in Robert A. Denemark, ed. The International Studies Encyclopedia, Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  123. Rosenau, James N. and Ernst-Otto Czempiel, eds (1992) Governance without Government: Order and Change in World Politics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Schafer, Mark and Stephen G. Walker (2006a) ‘Democratic Leaders and the Democratic Peace: The Operational Codes of Tony Blair and Bill Clinton’, International Studies Quarterly 50 (3): 561–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Schafer, Mark and Stephen G. Walker, eds (2006b) Beliefs and Leadership in World Politics: Methods and Applications of Operational Code Analysis, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Schroeder, Ursula C. and Cornelius Friesendorf (2009) ‘State-Building and Organized Crime: Implementing the International Law Enforcement Agenda in Bosnia’, Journal of International Relations and Development 12 (2): 137–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sil, Rudra and Peter J. Katzenstein (2010) ‘Analytic Eclecticism in the Study of World Politics: Reconfiguring Problems and Mechanisms Across Research Traditions’, Perspectives on Politics 8 (2): 411–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Singer, P.W. (2001/02) ‘Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry and Its Ramifications for International Security’, International Security 26 (3): 186–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sjursen, Helene (2011) ‘Not So Intergovernmental after All? On Democracy and Integration in European Foreign and Security Policy’, Journal of European Public Policy 18 (8): 1078–1095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Slaughter, Anne-Marie (2004) A New World Order, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  131. Smith, Michael E. (2010) ‘European Foreign Policy’, in Robert A. Denemark, ed. The International Studies Encyclopedia, Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  132. Snyder, Richard C., H.W. Bruck and Burton Sapin (1954) Decision-Making as an Approach to the Study of International Politics, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  133. Sørensen, Georg (2004) The Transformation of the State: Beyond the Myth of Retreat, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  134. Soria, Valentina (2012) ‘Promoting the Concept of “UK Plc” ’, The RUSI Journal 157 (2): 32–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Stavridis, James and Evelyn N. Farkas (2012) ‘The 21st Century Force Multiplier: Public — Private Collaboration’, The Washington Quarterly 35 (2): 7–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Stengel, Frank A. and Christoph Weller (2010) ‘Action Plan or Faction Plan? Germany's Eclectic Approach to Conflict Prevention’, International Peacekeeping 17 (1): 93–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Stoddard, Abby (2006) Humanitarian Alert: NGO Information and Its Impact on US Foreign Policy, Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian.Google Scholar
  138. Stone, Diane (2008) ‘Global Public Policy, Transnational Policy Communities, and Their Networks’, Policy Studies Journal 36 (1): 19–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Strange, Susan (1996) The Retreat of the State: The Diffusion of Power in the World Economy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sylvan, Donald A., ed. (1998) Problem Representation in Foreign Policy Decision Making, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  141. Tallberg, Jonas (2010) ‘Transnational Access to International Institutions: Three Approaches’, in Christer Jönsson and Jonas Tallberg, eds, Transnational Actors in Global Governance: Patterns, Explanations, and Implications, 45–66, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Taremi, Kamran (2005) ‘Beyond the Axis of Evil: Ballistic Missiles in Iran's Military Thinking’, Security Dialogue 36 (1): 93–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Vaiman, Vlad, Throstur Olaf Sigurjonsson and Pall Asgeir Davidsson (2011) ‘Weak Business Culture as an Antecedent of Economic Crisis: The Case of Iceland’, Journal of Business Ethics 98 (2): 259–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wæver, Ole (1996) ‘The Rise and Fall of the Inter-Paradigm Debate’, in Ken Booth, Steve Smith and Marysia Zalewski, eds, International Theory: Positivism & Beyond, 149–85, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Wæver, Ole (1998) ‘The Sociology of a Not So International Discipline: American and European Developments in International Relations’, International Organization 52 (4): 687–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Walker, R.B.J. (1993) Inside/Outside: International Relations as Political Theory, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  147. Waltz, Kenneth N. (1999) ‘Globalization and Governance’, PS: Political Science & Politics 32 (4): 693–700.Google Scholar
  148. Watson, Matthew and Colin Hay (2003) ‘The Discourse of Globalisation and the Logic of No Alternative: Rendering the Contingent Necessary in the Political Economy of New Labour’, Policy & Politics 31 (3): 289–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Welch, David A. (2005) Painful Choices: A Theory of Foreign Policy Change, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Wendt, Alexander (2003) ‘Why a World State Is Inevitable’, European Journal of International Relations 9 (4): 491–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Whitten-Woodring, Jenifer (2009) ‘Watchdog or Lapdog? Media Freedom, Regime Type, and Government Respect for Human Rights’, International Studies Quarterly 53 (3): 595–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Wolf, Klaus Dieter, Nicole Deitelhoff and Stefan Engert (2007) ‘Corporate Security Responsibility: Towards a Conceptual Framework for a Comparative Research Agenda’, Cooperation and Conflict 42 (3): 294–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Wood, B.Dan and Jeffrey S. Peake (1998) ‘The Dynamics of Foreign Policy Agenda Setting’, American Political Science Review 92 (1): 173–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Zangl, Bernhard and Michael Zürn (1999) ‘The Effects of Denationalisation on Security in the OECD World’, Global Society 13 (2): 139–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Zürn, Michael (2002) ‘From Interdependence to Globalization’, in Walter Carlsnaes, Thomas Risse and Beth A. Simmons, eds, Handbook of International Relations, 235–54, London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Zürn, Michael, Martin Binder and Matthias Ecker-Ehrhardt (2012) ‘International Authority and Its Politicization’, International Theory 4 (1): 69–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rainer Baumann
    • 1
  • Frank A Stengel
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Global Cooperation Research (Käte Hamburger Kolleg), University of Duisburg-EssenDuisburgGermany
  2. 2.Bremen International Graduate School of Social Sciences (BIGSSS), University of BremenBremenGermany

Personalised recommendations