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Journal of International Business Studies

, Volume 47, Issue 2, pp 113–139 | Cite as

Work- and family-role adjustment of different types of global professionals: Scale development and validation

  • Margaret A Shaffer
  • B Sebastian Reiche
  • Mihaela Dimitrova
  • Mila Lazarova
  • Shoshi Chen
  • Mina Westman
  • Olivier Wurtz
Article

Abstract

Although the original model of expatriate adjustment proposed by Black and colleagues has received substantial empirical support, it has come under increased academic scrutiny, due to both the conceptual overlap among its dimensions and its limited applicability for global professionals who interact with individuals from diverse cultures. Drawing on role theory, we conceptualize and develop a multidimensional scale of the work- and family-role adjustment of global professionals. We assess this scale through five interlocking studies using data from a total of 1231 corporate and self-initiated expatriates, international business travelers, and global domestics. After confirming the scale’s dimensionality, we provide evidence for convergent, discriminant, nomological, and predictive validity. We also demonstrate differences in levels of adjustment and in relationships between work and family demands and resources and their respective forms of adjustment across various types of global professionals. We contribute to international business research, and the organizational behavior and work–family literatures, by offering a theoretically based scale that assesses adjustment to both work and family roles for a wide range of global employees. Our scale further lends itself as a diagnostic tool during the selection, training, and support of global professionals and their families.

Keywords

global professionals adjustment construct development and evaluation role theory demands and resources work and family roles 

Abstract

Même si le modèle original d’ajustement des expatriés proposé par Black et al. a reçu une importante validation empirique, il fait l’objet d’une interrogation académique croissante, en raison d’un chevauchement conceptuel de ses dimensions et de son applicabilité limitée pour des professionnels globaux qui interagissent avec des individus de cultures différentes. En nous appuyant sur la théorie des rôles, nous conceptualisons et développons une échelle multi-dimensionnelle de l’ajustement des rôles au travail et au sein de la famille pour les professionnels globaux. Nous évaluons cette échelle par cinq études encastrées en utilisant des données concernant un total de 1231 expatriés d’entreprise et auto-initiés, de voyageurs d’affaires internationaux et de salariés globaux travaillant dans leur pays d’origine. Après avoir confirmé la dimensionnalité de l’échelle, nous prouvons sa validité convergente, discriminante, nomologique et prédictive. Nous montrons aussi des différences dans les niveaux d’ajustement et dans les relations entre les demandes et les ressources au travail et au sein de la famille ainsi que leurs formes respectives d’ajustement selon les différents types de professionnels globaux. Nous contribuons à la recherche en international business et à la littérature sur le comportement organisationnel et la relation entre le travail et la famille, en offrant une échelle fondée sur une théorie qui évalue l’ajustement aux rôles au travail et au sein de la famille pour une grande variété de salariés globaux. Notre échelle peut aussi être utilisée comme un outil de diagnostic durant la sélection, la formation et le soutien accordé aux professionnels globaux et à leurs familles.

Abstract

Aunque el modelo original de ajuste de expatriados de Black y sus colegas ha recibido un importante apoyo empírico, ha sido objeto de un mayor escrutinio académico, debido tanto a la trasposición conceptual entre sus dimensiones y su limitada aplicabilidad para los profesionales globales que interactúan con individuos de diversas culturas. Sobre la base de la teoría de rol, conceptualizamos y desarrollamos una escala multidimensional del ajuste de los roles trabajo-familia de los profesionales globales. Evaluamos esta escala mediante cinco estudios entrelazados usando datos de un total de 1231 expatriados corporativos y expatriados por iniciativa propia, viajeros por negocios internacionales, y domésticos globales. Después de confirmar la dimensionalidad de la escala aportamos evidencias para validez convergente, discriminante, nomológica y predictiva. Adicionalmente demostramos diferencias en los niveles de ajuste y en las relaciones entre las demandas de trabajo y de familia, y de los recursos y de las respectivas formas de ajuste entre varios tipos de profesionales globales. Contribuimos a la investigación de negocios internacionales y de comportamiento organizacional y la literatura de trabajo-familia ofreciendo una escala basada en teoría que valora el ajuste tanto a los roles en el trabajo como en la familia para una amplia gama de empleados globales. Nuestra escala además se presta como una herramienta de diagnóstico durante la selección, el entrenamiento, y el apoyo a profesionales globales y sus familias.

Abstract

Embora o modelo original de adaptação do expatriado proposto por Black e seus colegas tenha recebido apoio empírico substancial, ele veio sob maior escrutínio acadêmico, devido tanto à sobreposição conceitual das suas dimensões, quanto a sua aplicabilidade limitada para profissionais globais que interagem com pessoas de diversas culturas. Com base na teoria dos papéis, nós conceituamos e desenvolvemos uma escala multidimensional da adaptação de profissionais globais nos papéis do trabalho e da família. Nós avaliamos esta escala por meio de cinco estudos interrelacionados usando dados de um total de 1231 expatriados corporativos e autônomos, viajantes de negócios internacionais e profissionais globais domésticos. Após a confirmação da dimensionalidade da escala, nós fornecemos evidências para validade convergente, discriminante e preditiva. Nós também demonstramos as diferenças entre os níveis de adaptação e nas relações entre as demandas e recursos de trabalho e família e suas respectivas formas de adaptação em vários tipos de profissionais globais. Nós contribuímos para a pesquisa em negócios internacionais, bem como para a literatura sobre comportamento organizacional e sobre trabalho-família através da oferta de uma escala teórica que avalia a adaptação de uma ampla gama de funcionários globais em ambos os papéis profissional e familiar. Nossa escala ainda pode ser usada como uma ferramenta de diagnóstico durante a seleção, treinamento e suporte de profissionais globais e suas famílias.

Abstract

虽然由Black及其同事提出的外派人士适应的原始模型已经受到了大量的实证支持, 但是由于该模型维度之间概念重叠, 且对与来自不同文化的个体互动的全球专业人士的适用性有限, 所以它受到越来越多的学术审视。借鉴角色理论, 我们概念化并开发了关于全球专业人士工作和家庭角色适应的多维度量表。我们利用总共来自1231个企业和自发的外派人员、国际商务旅客、及全球家佣的样本数据, 通过五个连锁研究来评估这一量表。经过证实量表的维度后, 我们为量表的收敛、判别、法理及预测效度提供了证据。我们也证明了不同水平适应的差异性, 以及工作与家庭需求和资源与各种类型全球专业人士他们各自适应模式之间关系的差异性。通过提供一个基于理论的用来评估广范围全球雇员工作与家庭角色适应性的量表, 我们对国际商务研究以及组织行为和工作-家庭文献做出了贡献。我们的量表进一步可作为一个选择、培训、支持全球专业人士及其家庭的诊断工具。

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by a grant from the US–Israel Bi-national Science Foundation (BSF), number 2009106, by funding from the Ministry of Economy and Competiveness of Spain (Project No. ECO2012-33544), and by funding from the Canada Research Chairs program. An earlier version of this article was presented at the 2013 AIB conference. The authors would like to thank the two anonymous reviewers and JIBS area editor Mary Zellmer-Bruhn for their insightful comments and guidance.

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Copyright information

© Academy of International Business 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margaret A Shaffer
    • 1
  • B Sebastian Reiche
    • 2
  • Mihaela Dimitrova
    • 3
  • Mila Lazarova
    • 4
  • Shoshi Chen
    • 5
  • Mina Westman
    • 5
  • Olivier Wurtz
    • 6
  1. 1.Sheldon B. Lubar School of Business, The University of Wisconsin-MilwaukeeMilwaukeeUSA
  2. 2.IESE Business SchoolBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.School of Business Administration, Oakland UniversityRochesterUSA
  4. 4.Beedie School of Business, Simon Fraser UniversityVancouverCanada
  5. 5.Recanati School of Business Administration, Tel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael
  6. 6.Department of ManagementUniversity of VaasaVaasaFinland

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