Journal of International Business Studies

, Volume 46, Issue 3, pp 381–389 | Cite as

Consumer ethnocentrism: Reconceptualization and cross-cultural validation

  • Piyush Sharma
Research Note


Consumer ethnocentrism (CE) is a popular construct in international marketing research and is generally measured using the CETSCALE, a reliable scale with proven predictive validity but with limited evidence about its construct validity, dimensionality and cross-cultural measurement invariance. This note addresses these gaps by reconceptualizing CE as an attitude construct consisting of three dimensions: (1) affective reaction, (2) cognitive bias and (3) behavioral preference. A revised CE scale (CES) is developed and tested using two empirical studies with adult consumers from four different countries (China, India, UK and USA), showing that CES is a reliable, valid and cross-culturally invariant scale and it explains greater variance than the CETSCALE and other similar scales, in customer evaluations and behavioral intentions for a wide range of products and services.


consumer ethnocentrism CETSCALE animosity patriotism internationalism cosmopolitanism 



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Copyright information

© Academy of International Business 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Marketing, Curtin Business School, Curtin UniversityBentleyAustralia

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