Advertisement

Journal of International Business Studies

, Volume 44, Issue 7, pp 649–675 | Cite as

How remote are R&D labs? Distance factors and international innovative activities

  • Davide Castellani
  • Alfredo Jimenez
  • Antonello Zanfei
Article

Abstract

This paper shows that value creation by multinational enterprises (MNEs) is the result of activities where geographic distance effects can be overcome. We submit that geographic distance has a relatively low impact on international research and development (R&D) investments, owing to the spiky nature of innovation, and to the unique ability of MNEs to absorb and transfer knowledge on a global scale. On the one hand, MNEs need to set up their labs as close as possible to specialized technology clusters where valuable knowledge is concentrated, largely regardless of distance from their home base. On the other, MNEs have historically developed technical and organizational competencies that enable them to transfer knowledge within their internal networks and across technology clusters at relatively low cost. Using data on R&D and manufacturing investments of 6320 firms in 59 countries, we find that geographic distance has a lower negative impact on the probability of setting up R&D than manufacturing plants. Furthermore, once measures of institutional proximity are accounted for, MNEs are equally likely to set up R&D labs in nearby or in more remote locations. This result is driven by MNEs based in Triad countries, whereas for non-Triad MNEs the effect of geographic distance on cross-border R&D is negative and significant.

Keywords

cross-border investments geographic distance institutional distance innovation and R&D 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank John Cantwell, Mark Lorenzen, Vasyl Taras, three anonymous reviewers and the Guest Editors (Sjoerd Beugelsdijk and Ram Mudambi) for their helpful comments. This paper also benefited from comments received at various workshops, conferences and seminars, including those held at the Fox School of Business (Temple University, Philadelphia, USA), Henley Business School (University of Reading, UK), Rutgers Business School (Newark, NJ, USA), UNU-MERIT and School of Economics and Business (Maastricht University, the Netherlands), University of Lausanne (Switzerland) and Nanzan University (Nagoya, Japan). Castellani and Zanfei gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Italian Ministry of University and Research (Prin 2009 project on “Production, R&D and knowledge offshoring: Economic analyses and policy implications”). Jimenez gratefully acknowledges financial support from Caja de Burgos. Research for this paper was partly carried out while Jimenez was a visiting scholar at the University of Perugia, and Castellani was visiting at Rutgers Business School. The authors thank those institutions for their hospitality.

References

  1. Abdi, M., & Aulakh, P. 2012. Do country-level institutional frameworks and interfirm governance arrangements substitute or complement in international business relationships? Journal of International Business Studies, 43 (5): 477–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alcacer, J. 2006. Location choices across the value chain: How activity and capability influence collocation. Management Science, 52 (10): 1457–1471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alcacer, J., & Chung, W. 2007. Location strategies and knowledge spillovers. Management Science, 53 (5): 760–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alcacer, J., & Zhao, M. 2012. Local R&D strategies and multilocation firms: The role of internal linkages. Management Science, 58 (4): 734–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ambos, B., & Ambos, T. C. 2009. The impact of distance on knowledge transfer effectiveness in multinational corporations. Journal of International Management, 15 (1): 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ambos, B., & Ambos, T. C. 2011. Meeting the challenge of offshoring R&D: An examination of firm- and location-specific factors. R&D Management, 41 (2): 107–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson, J. E. 2011. The gravity model. Annual Review of Economics, 3 (1): 133–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arora, A., & Gambardella, A. 1994. The changing technology of technological change: General and abstract knowledge and the division of innovative labour. Research Policy, 23 (5): 523–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arundel, A., & Geuna, A. 2004. Proximity and the use of public science by innovative European firms. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 13 (6): 559–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Audretsch, D., & Feldman, M. 1996. R&D spillovers and the geography of innovation and production. American Economic Review, 86 (3): 253–273.Google Scholar
  11. Bairoch, P. 1990. The impact of crop yields, agricultural productivity, and transport costs on urban growth between 1800 and 1910. In A. D. van der Woude, A. Hayami, & J. deVries (Eds), Urbanization in history, 134–151. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  12. Baldwin, R. 2003. Comment to Crafts, N. & Venables, A. J., Globalization in history: A geographical perspective. In M. D. Bordo, A. M. Taylor, & J. G. Williamson (Eds), Globalization in historical perspective, 364–369. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  13. Bartel, A., Lach, S., & Sicherman, N. 2009. Outsourcing and technological change. IZA Discussion Paper No. 4678. IZA, Bonn, Germany.Google Scholar
  14. Basile, R., Castellani, D., & Zanfei, A. 2008. Location choices of multinational firms in Europe: The role of EU cohesion policy. Journal of International Economics, 74 (2): 328–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Beckerman, W. 1956. Distance and the pattern of intra-European trade. Review of Economics and Statistics, 38 (1): 31–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Belderbos, R., Lykogianni, E., & Veugelers, R. 2008. Strategic R&D location in European manufacturing industries. Journal of World Economics, 14 (2): 1–24.Google Scholar
  17. Berry, H. 2006. Leaders, laggards, and the pursuit of foreign knowledge. Strategic Management Journal, 27 (2): 151–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Berry, H., Guillen, M., & Zhou, N. 2010. An institutional approach to cross-national distance. Journal of International Business Studies, 41 (9): 1460–1480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Beugelsdijk, S., & Frijns, B. 2010. A cultural explanation of the foreign bias in international asset allocation. Journal of Banking and Finance, 34 (9): 2121–2131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Beugelsdijk, S., McCann, P., & Mudambi, R. 2010. Introduction: Place, space and organization – Economic geography and the multinational enterprise. Journal of Economic Geography, 10 (4): 485–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Blum, B. S., & Goldfarb, A. 2006. Does the internet defy the law of gravity? Journal of International Economics, 70 (2): 384–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cantwell, J. A. 1989. Technological innovation and multinational corporations. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  23. Cantwell, J. A. 1995. The globalization of technology: What remains of the product cycle model. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 19 (1): 155–174.Google Scholar
  24. Cantwell, J. A., & Iammarino, S. 2003. Multinational corporations and European regional systems of innovation. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Cantwell, J. A., & Kosmopoulou, E. 2002. What determines the internationalisation of corporate technology? In V. Havila, M. Forsgren, & H. Hakanson (Eds), Critical perspectives on internationalization, 305–334. Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  26. Cantwell, J. A., & Mudambi, R. 2005. MNE competence-creating subsidiary mandates. Strategic Management Journal, 26 (12): 1109–1128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cantwell, J. A., & Mudambi, R. 2011. Physical attraction and the geography of knowledge sourcing in multinational enterprises. Global Strategy Journal, 1 (3–4): 206–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cantwell, J. A., & Piscitello, L. 2005. Recent location of foreign-owned research and development activities by large multinational corporations in the European regions: The role of spillovers and externalities. Regional Studies, 39 (1): 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cantwell, J., & Santangelo, G.D. 1999. The frontier of international technology networks: Sourcing abroad the most highly tacit capabilities. Information Economics and Policy, 11 (1): 101–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Casella, A., & Rauch, J. E. 2003. Overcoming informational barriers to international resource allocation: Prices and ties. The Economic Journal, 113 (1): 21–42.Google Scholar
  31. Castellani, D., & Zanfei, A. 2006. Multinational firms, innovation and productivity. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Criscuolo, P., Narula, R., & Verspagen, B. 2005. Role of home and host country innovation systems in R&D internationalisation: A patent citation analysis. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 14 (5): 417–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dachs, B., & Pyka, A. 2010. What drives the internationalisation of innovation? Evidence from European patent data. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 19 (1): 71–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Davidson, W. H. 1980. The location of foreign direct investment activity: Country characteristics and experience effects. Journal of International Business Studies, 11 (1): 9–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. De Benedictis, L., & Taglioni, D. 2011. The gravity model and international trade. In L. De Benedictis, & L. Salvatici (Eds), The trade impact of European Union preferential policies: An analysis through gravity models, 55–89. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Defever, F. 2006. Functional fragmentation and the location of multinational firms in the enlarged Europe. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 36 (5): 658–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Disdier, A. C., & Head, K. 2008. The puzzling persistence of the distance effect on bilateral trade. Review of Economics and Statistics, 90 (1): 37–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dollar, D. 2001. Globalization, inequality, and poverty since 1980. Washington DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  39. Dow, D., & Ferencikova, S. 2010. More than just national cultural distance: Testing new distance scales on FDI in Slovakia. International Business Review, 19 (1): 46–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dow, D., & Karunaratna, A. 2006. Developing a multidimensional instrument to measure psychic distance stimuli. Journal of International Business Studies, 37 (5): 578–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Doz, Y., & Santos, J. F. P. 1997. On the management of knowledge: From the transparency of collocation and co-setting to the quandary of dispersion and differentiation. INSEAD working paper series Vol. 97/119/SM, Fontainbleau.Google Scholar
  42. Dunning, J. H. 2009. Location and the multinational enterprise: John Dunning’s thoughts on receiving the Journal of International Business Studies 2008 Decade Award. Journal of International Business Studies, 40 (1): 20–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dunning, J. H., & Lundan, S.M. 2008. Multinational enterprises and the global economy. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  44. Dunning, J. H., & Lundan, S.M. 2009. The internationalization of corporate R&D: A review of the evidence and some policy implications for home countries. Review of Policy Research, 26 (1–2): 13–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dunning, J. H., & Narula, R. 1995. The R&D activities of foreign firms in the United States. International Studies of Management & Organization, 25 (1–2): 39–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Eden, L., & Miller, S. R. 2004. Distance matters: Liability of foreignness, institutional distance and ownership strategy. In M. Hitt, & J. Cheng (Eds), Advances in international management. Vol. 16, 187–221. Amsterdam: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  47. Egger, P., & Merlo, V. 2007. The impact of bilateral investment treaties on FDI dynamics. The World Economy, 30 (10): 1536–1549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Egger, P., & Pfaffermayr, M. 2004a. Distance, trade and FDI: A Hausman-Taylor SUR approach. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 19 (2): 227–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Egger, P., & Pfaffermayr, M. 2004b. The impact of bilateral investment treaties on foreign direct investment. Journal of Comparative Economics, 32 (4): 788–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ellis, P. 2008. Does psychic distance moderate the market size – entry sequence relationship? Journal of International Business Studies, 39 (3): 351–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Evans, J., & Mavondo, F. T. 2002. Psychic distance and organizational performance: An empirical examination of international retailing operations. Journal of International Business Studies, 33 (3): 515–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Findlay, R., & O’Rourke, K. H. 2003. Commodity market integration, 1500–2000. In M. D. Bordo, A. M. Taylor, & J. G. Williamson (Eds), Globalization in historical perspective, 13–64. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Florida, R 2005. The world is spiky. Atlantic Monthly October: 48–51.Google Scholar
  54. Frankel, J., & Rose, A. 2002. An estimate of the effect of common currencies on trade and income. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 117 (2): 437–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ghemawat, P. 2001. Distance still matters: The hard reality of global expansion. Harvard Business Review, 79 (8): 137–147.Google Scholar
  56. Giarratana, M., Pagano, A., & Torrisi, S. 2005. The role of the multinational firms. In A. Arora, & A. Gambardella (Eds), From underdogs to tigers: The rise and growth of the software industry in some emerging regions, 207–235. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Goodall, K., & Roberts, J. 2003. Repairing managerial knowledge-ability over distance. Organization Studies, 24 (7): 1153–1175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Granstrand, O. 1999. Internationalization of corporate R&D: A study of Japanese and Swedish corporations. Research Policy, 28 (2–3): 275–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Grossman, G. 1996. Comments on Alan V. Deardorff, Determinants of bilateral trade: Does gravity work in a neoclassical world. In J. A. Frankel (Ed), The regionalization of the world economy, 7–22. Chicago: University of Chicago for NBER.Google Scholar
  60. Guiso, L., Sapienza, P., & Zingales, L. 2009. Cultural biases in economic exchange? Quarterly Journal of Economics, 124 (3): 1095–1131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gupta, A., & Govindarajan, V. 1991. Knowledge flows and the structure of control within multinational corporations. Academy of Management Review, 16 (4): 768–792.Google Scholar
  62. Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. 1999. Análisis multivariante, 5th edn. Madrid: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  63. Håkanson, L., & Ambos, B. 2010. The antecedents of psychic distance. Journal of International Management, 16 (3): 195–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Head, K., Mayer, T., & Ries, J. 2009. How remote is the offshoring threat? European Economic Review, 53 (4): 429–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Henisz, W. J. 2000. The institutional environment for multinational investment. Journal of Law and Economic Organization, 16 (2): 334–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hergueux, J. 2010. How does religion bias the allocation of foreign direct investment? The role of institutions. International Economics, 128 (4): 53–76.Google Scholar
  67. Hofstede, G. 1980. Culture’s consequences: International differences in work related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  68. Howells, J. 1990. The location and organisation of research and development: New horizons. Research Policy, 19 (2): 133–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Huang, R. R. 2007. Distance and trade: Disentangling unfamiliarity effects and transport cost effects. European Economic Review, 51 (1): 161–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hummels, D., & Skiba, A. 2004. Shipping the good apples out? An empirical confirmation of the Alchian–Allen conjecture. Journal of Political Economy, 112 (6): 1384–1402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Iannaccone, L. 1998. Introduction to the economics of religion. Journal of Economic Literature, 36 (3): 1465–1496.Google Scholar
  72. James, J. 2001. Information technology, cumulative causation and patterns of globalization in the third world. Review of International Political Economy, 8 (1): 147–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kennedy, P. A. 1992. Guide to econometrics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  74. King, G., & Zeng, L. 2001. Logistic regression in rare events data. Political Analysis, 9 (2): 137–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kleinert, J., & Toubal, F. 2010. Gravity for FDI. Review of International Economics, 18 (1): 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kogut, B., & Zander, U. 1992. Knowledge of the firm, combinative capabilities and the replication of technology. Organization Science, 3 (3): 383–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kuemmerle, W. 1997. Building effective R&D capabilities abroad. Harvard Business Review, 75 (2): 61–70.Google Scholar
  78. Leamer, E., & Levinsohn, J. 1995. International trade theory: The evidence. In G. M. Grossman, & K. Rogoff (Eds), Handbook of international economics. Vol. 3. 1339–1394. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.Google Scholar
  79. Le Bas, C., & Sierra, C. 2002. “Location versus home country advantages” in R&D activities: Some further results on multinationals' location strategies. Research Policy, 31 (4): 589–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Levinson, M. 2008. Freight pain: The rise and fall of globalization. Foreign Affairs, 87 (6): 134–140.Google Scholar
  81. Lewin, A., Massini, S., & Peeters, C. 2009. Why are companies offshoring innovation? The emerging global race for talent. Journal of International Business Studies, 40 (6): 901–925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lorenzen, M. 2007. Social capital and localized learning: Proximity and place in technological and institutional dynamics. Urban Studies, 44 (4): 799–817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lorenzen, M., & Mudambi, R. 2013. Clusters, connectivity and catch-up: Bollywood and Bangalore in the global economy. Journal of Economic Geography, 13 (3): 501–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Martin, X., & Salomon, R. 2003. Knowledge transfer capacity and its implications for the theory of the multinational corporation. Journal of International Business Studies, 43 (4): 356–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Melitz, J. 2008. Language and foreign trade. European Economic Review, 52 (4): 667–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Meyer, K. E., Mudambi, R., & Narula, R. 2011. Multinational enterprises and local contexts: The opportunities and challenges of multiple-embeddedness. Journal of Management Studies, 48 (2): 235–252.Google Scholar
  87. Morck, R., & Yeung, B. 1991. Why investors value multinationality. The Journal of Business, 64 (2): 165–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mudambi, R. 2008. Location, control and innovation in knowledge-intensive industries. Journal of Economic Geography, 8 (5): 699–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mudambi, R., & Swift, T. 2012. Multinational enterprises and the geographical clustering of innovation. Industry & Innovation, 19 (1): 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Muralidharan, R., & Phatak, A. 1999. International R&D activity of US MNCS: An empirical study with implications for host government policy. Multinational Business Review, 7 (2): 97–105.Google Scholar
  91. Nachum, L., & Zaheer, A. 2005. The persistence of distance? The impact of technology on MNE motivations for foreign investment. Strategic Management Journal, 26 (8): 747–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Nachum, L., Zaheer, S., & Gross, S. 2008. Does it matter where countries are? Proximity to knowledge, markets and resources, and MNE location choices. Management Science, 54 (7): 1252–1265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Narula, R., & Zanfei, A. 2005. Globalisation of innovation. In J. Fagerberg, D. Mowery, & R. R. Nelson (Eds), Handbook of innovation, 318–345. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  94. Neter, J., Wasserman, W., & Kutner, M. H. 1985. Applied linear statistical models: Regression, analysis of variance and experimental designs, 2nd edn. London: Irwin.Google Scholar
  95. OECD. 2011. Attractiveness for innovation: Location factors for international investment. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  96. Patel, P., & Pavitt, K. 1991. Large firms in the production of the world’s technology: An important case of “non-globalisation”. Journal of International Business Studies, 22 (1): 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Patel, P., & Vega, M. 1999. Patterns of internationalisation of corporate technology: Location vs home country advantages. Research Policy, 28 (2–3): 145–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Picci, L. 2010. The internationalization of inventive activity: A gravity model using patent data. Research Policy, 39 (8): 1070–1081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Portes, R., & Rey, H. 2005. The determinants of cross-border equity flows. Journal of International Economics, 65 (2): 269–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Py, L., & Hatem, F. 2009. Where do multinationals locate manufacturing and service activities in Europe and why? Economie et Statistique, 426 (1): 67–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Reddy, P. 2000. Globalization of corporate R&D: Implications for innovation systems in host countries. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Salomon, R., & Wu, Z. 2012. Institutional distance and local isomorphism strategy. Journal of International Business Studies, 43 (4): 894–909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Santangelo, G. D. 2002. Innovation in multinational corporations in the information age: The experience of the European ICT industry. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  104. Santangelo, G. D., & Meyer, K. E. 2011. Extending the internationalization process model: Increases and decreases of MNE commitment in emerging economies. Journal of International Business Studies, 42 (7): 894–909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Schmitt, A., & Van Biesebroeck, J. 2013. Proximity strategies in outsourcing relations: The role of geographical, cultural and relational proximity in the European automotive industry. Journal of International Business Studies, 44 (5): 475–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Schotter, A., & Beamish, P. W. 2013. The hassle factor: An explanation for managerial location shunning. Journal of International Business Studies, 44 (5): 521–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Shenkar, O. 2001. Cultural distance revisited: Towards a more rigorous conceptualization and measurement of cultural differences. Journal of International Business Studies, 32 (3): 519–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Slangen, A. H. L., & Beugelsdijk, S. 2010. The impact of institutional hazards on foreign multinational activity: A contingency perspective. Journal of International Business Studies, 41 (6): 980–995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Slangen, A., Beugelsdijk, S., & Hennart, J. F. 2011. The impact of cultural distance on bilateral arm’s length exports: An international business perspective. Management International Review, 51 (6): 875–896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sousa, C. M. P., & Bradley, F. 2006. Cultural distance and psychic distance: Two peas in a pod? Journal of International Marketing, 14 (1): 49–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Stein, E., & Daude, C. 2007. Longitude matters: Time zones and the location of foreign direct investment. Journal of International Economics, 71 (1): 96–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Stundemund, A. H. 1992. Using econometrics: A practical guide. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  113. Tinbergen, J. 1962. The world economy: Suggestions for an international economic policy. New York: Twentieth Century Fund.Google Scholar
  114. UNCTAD. 2005. World investment report: Transnational corporations and the internationalization of R&D.. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  115. Verspagen, B., & Schoenmakers, W. 2004. The spatial dimension of patenting by multinational firms in Europe. Journal of Economic Geography, 4 (1): 23–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. von Zedtwitz, M., & Gassmann, O. 2002. Market versus technology drive in R&D internationalization: Four different patterns of managing research and development. Research Policy, 31 (4): 569–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Xu, D., Pan, Y., & Beamish, P. 2004. The effect of regulative and normative distances on MNE ownership and expatriate strategies. Management International Review, 44 (3): 285–307.Google Scholar
  118. Xu, D., & Shenkar, O. 2002. Institutional distance and the multinational enterprise. Academy of Management Review, 27 (4): 608–618.Google Scholar
  119. Zanfei, A. 2000. Transnational firms and changing organisation of innovative activities. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 24 (5): 515–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zucker, L., Darby, M., & Brewer, M. 1998. Intellectual human capital and the birth of the US biotechnology enterprises. American Economic Review, 88 (1): 290–306.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Academy of International Business 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Davide Castellani
    • 1
  • Alfredo Jimenez
    • 2
  • Antonello Zanfei
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of EconomicsFinance and Statistics, University of PerugiaPerugiaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Business AdministrationUniversity of BurgosBurgosSpain
  3. 3.Department of EconomicsSociety and Politics, University of UrbinoUrbinoItaly

Personalised recommendations