Related lending and banking development
- 162 Downloads
Does related lending have positive or negative effects on the development of banking systems? We analyze a unique cross-country data set covering 74 countries from 1990 to 2007, and find that related lending, on average, does not have any effect on the growth of credit. We do find, however, that there are conditional relationships: related lending tends to retard the growth of banking systems when rule of law is weak, whereas it tends to promote the growth of banking systems when rule of law is strong. We also find that related lending appears to be associated with looting when banks are owned by non-financial firms, but that it does not do so when non-financial firms are owned by banks. Our results indicate that whether related lending is positive or pernicious depends critically on the institutional context in which it takes place; there is no single “best policy” regarding related lending. These findings are robust to alternative specifications, including IV regressions.
Keywordsfinancial and industrial structure banking and finance institutional environment markets and institutions
The views are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the World Bank or its affiliate institutions. Imai gratefully acknowledges financial support from Wesleyan University for a Mellon Faculty Career Development Mini Grant. We thank Varun Kshirsagar and Yeon Soo Kim for their excellent research assistance, and Thorsten Beck, Richard Grossman, Lewis Davis, Aldo Musacchio and two anonymous referees for valuable comments. An earlier version of this paper was presented at the Harvard Business School International Research Conference, the 3rd Annual Workshop in Macroeconomics in Liberal Arts Colleges, and the Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economicas. All errors are our own.
- Acemoglu, D., Johnson, S., & Robinson, J. 2005. Institutions as the fundamental cause of long-run growth. In P. Aghion & S. Durlauf (Eds), Handbook of economic growth: 385–472. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.Google Scholar
- Aoki, M., Patrick, H., & Sheard, P. 1994. The Japanese main bank system: An introductory overview. In M. Aoki & H. Patrick (Eds) The Japanese main bank system: Its relevance for developing and transforming economies: 3–50. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Barth, J., Caprio, G., & Levine, R. 2001. Bank regulation and supervision: What works best? World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 2725.Google Scholar
- Barth, J., Caprio, G., & Levine, R. 2006. Rethinking bank regulation: Till angels govern. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Calomiris, C. 1995. The costs of rejecting universal banking: American finance in the German mirror, 1870–1914. In N. Lamoreaux & R. M. G. Daniel (Eds), Coordination and information: Historical perspectives on the organization of enterprise: 257–315. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Caprio, G., & Klingebiel, D. 2003. Episodes of systemic and borderline financial crises. World Bank, mimeo, http://go.worldbank.org/5DYGICS7B0.
- Chinn, M., & Ito, H. 2008. A new measure of financial openness. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, 10 (3): 307–320.Google Scholar
- Demirgüç-Kunt, A., Karacaovali, B., & Laeven, L. 2005. Deposit insurance around the world: A comprehensive database, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3628, http://go.worldbank.org/KXEZESCGJ0.
- Fisman, R., & Love, I. 2004. Financial development and growth in the short- and long-run, NBER Working Paper 10236, National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
- Gerschenkron, A. 1962. Economic backwardness in historical perspective. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Habyarimana, J. 2003. The benefits of relationships: Evidence from Uganda's banking crisis. Harvard University, mimeo.Google Scholar
- Kaufmann, D., Kraay, A., & Zoido-Lobaton, P. 1999. Governance matters. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 2196.Google Scholar
- Levine, R., & Zervos, S. 1998. Stock markets, banks, and economic growth. American Economic Review, 88 (3): 537–558.Google Scholar
- Neal, L. 1990. The rise of financial capitalism: International capital markets in the age of reason. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Rajan, R., & Zingales, L. 1998a. Financial dependence and growth. American Economic Review, 88 (3): 559–586.Google Scholar
- Sylla, R. 2007. The political economy of early US financial development. In S. Haber D. C. North & B. R. Weingast (Eds) Political institutions and financial development: 60–91. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar