Journal of International Business Studies

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 285–306 | Cite as

Country of origin effects in developed and emerging markets: Exploring the contrasting roles of materialism and value consciousness

  • Piyush Sharma
Article

Abstract

Despite growing evidence about differences in the attitudes and behaviors of consumers in emerging and developed markets, there is little research on the differences in country of origin (COO) effects on their evaluation, behavioral intentions (BIs), and actual purchase of imported products. This paper introduces a new conceptual framework incorporating consumer ethnocentrism (CET), materialism (MAT), and value consciousness (VC) to hypothesize several differences in the influence of COO effects on consumers from developed and emerging markets. A web-based study with 1752 consumers in four countries representing two developed markets (the UK and the USA) and two emerging markets (China and India) shows significant differences in the moderating influence of CET, MAT, and VC on the effects of COO on the evaluations and BIs for a fictitious passenger car brand, and on the actual choice of car brands owned by them. The findings highlight the importance of looking beyond CET at other relevant psychographic variables to understand the differences in motivations underlying consumer perceptions and behavior towards imported products.

Keywords

consumer ethnocentrism country of origin effects emerging markets home country materialism value consciousness 

Notes

References

  1. Ahmed, S. A., & d’Astous, A. 2001. Canadian consumers’ perceptions of products made in newly industrializing East Asian countries. International Journal of Commerce & Management, 11 (1): 54–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed, S. A., & d’Astous, A. 2008. Antecedents, moderators and dimensions of country-of-origin evaluations. International Marketing Review, 25 (1): 75–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed, S. A., d’Astous, A., & Eljabri, J. 2002a. The impact of technological complexity on consumers’ perceptions of products made in highly and newly industrialized countries. International Marketing Review, 19 (4): 387–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmed, Z. U., Johnson, J. P., Ling, C. P., Fong, T. W., & Hui, A. K. 2002b. Country-of-origin and brand effects on consumers’ evaluations of cruise lines. International Marketing Review, 19 (2/3): 279–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ailawadi, K. L., Neslin, S. A., & Gedenk, K. 2001. Pursuing the value-conscious consumer: Store brands versus national brand promotions. Journal of Marketing, 65 (1): 71–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alden, D. L., Steenkamp, J.-B. E. M., & Batra, R. 2006. Consumer attitudes toward marketplace globalization: Structure, antecedents and consequences. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 23 (3): 227–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Almonte, J., Falk, C., Skaggs, R., & Cárdenas, M. 1995. Country-of-origin bias among high-income consumers in Mexico: An empirical study. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 8 (2): 27–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Amine, L. S. 2008. Country-of-origin, animosity and consumer response: Marketing implications of anti-Americanism and Francophobia. International Business Review, 17 (4): 402–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Amine, L. S., & Shin, S.-H. 2002. A comparison of consumer nationality as a determinant of COO preferences. Multinational Business Review, 10 (1): 45–53.Google Scholar
  10. Amine, L. S., Chao, M. C. H., & Arnold, M. J. 2005. Exploring the practical effects of country of origin, animosity, and price-quality issues: Two case studies of Taiwan and Acer in China. Journal of International Marketing, 13 (2): 114–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. 1988. Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103 (3): 411–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Anonymous. 2007. China's food safety woes now a global concern: Pet food crisis focuses attention on frightening potential health hazards. Shanghai, China: Associated Press.Google Scholar
  13. Armstrong, J. S., & Overton, T. S. 1977. Estimating non-response bias in mail surveys. Journal of Marketing Research, 14 (3): 396–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. 1988. On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Sciences, 16 (1): 74–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bandyopadhyay, S., & Banerjee, B. 2002. A country of origin analysis of foreign brands by Indian consumers. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 15 (2): 85–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. 1986. The moderator-mediator variable in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51 (6): 1173–1182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Batra, R. 1997. Marketing issues and challenges in transitional economies. Journal of International Marketing, 5 (4): 95–114.Google Scholar
  18. Batra, R., Ramaswamy, V., Alden, D. L., Steenkamp, J.-E. B. M., & Ramachander, S. 2000. Effects of brand local and nonlocal origin on consumer attitudes in developing countries. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 9 (2): 83–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Belk, R. W. 1985. Materialism: Trait aspects of living in the material world. Journal of Consumer Research, 12 (3): 265–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Belk, R. W. 1999. Leaping luxuries and transitional consumers. In R. Batra (Ed.), Marketing issues in transition economies: 41–54. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Press.Google Scholar
  21. Bilkey, W. J., & Nes, E. 1982. Country-of-origin effects on product evaluations. Journal of International Business Studies, 13 (1): 89–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brouthers, L. E., & Xu, K. 2002. Product stereotypes, strategy and performance satisfaction: The case of Chinese exporters. Journal of International Business Studies, 33 (4): 657–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Burroughs, J. E., & Rindfleisch, A. 2002. Materialism and well-being: A conflicting values perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 29 (3): 348–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Byrne, B. M. 1994. Structural equation modeling with EQS and EQS/Windows: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  25. Chao, P. 1993. Partitioning country-of-origin effects: Consumer evaluations of a hybrid product. Journal of International Business Studies, 24 (2): 291–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chao, P., & Gupta, P. B. 1995. Information search and efficiency of consumer choices of new cars: Country-of-origin effects. International Marketing Review, 12 (6): 47–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chryssochoidis, G., Krystallis, A., & Perreas, P. 2007. Ethnocentric beliefs and country-of-origin (COO) effect: Impact of country, product and product attributes on Greek consumers’ evaluation of food products. European Journal of Marketing, 41 (11/12): 1518–1544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Clarke, I., Shankarmahesh, M. N., & Ford, J. B. 2000. Consumer ethnocentrism, materialism and values: A four country study. In J. P. Workman & W. D. Perreault (Eds), Conference Proceedings of the AMA Winter Educators’ Conference, San Antonio, TX: 102–103. Chicago: American Marketing Association.Google Scholar
  29. Cleveland, M., Laroche, M., & Papadopoulos, N. 2009. Cosmopolitanism, consumer ethnocentrism, and materialism: An eight-country study of antecedents and outcomes. Journal of International Marketing, 17 (1): 116–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cohen, J. 1988. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  31. Cui, G., & Liu, Q. 2001. Emerging market segments in a transitional economy: A study of urban consumers in China. Journal of International Marketing, 9 (1): 84–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Eastman, J. K., Fredenberger, B., Campbell, D., & Calvert, S. 1997. The relationship between status consumption and materialism: A cross-cultural comparison of Chinese, Mexican, and American students. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 5 (Winter): 52–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ettenson, R. E. 1993. Brand name and country of origin effects in the emerging market economies of Russia, Poland and Hungary. International Marketing Review, 10 (5): 14–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ettenson, R. E., & Klein, J. G. 2005. The fallout from French nuclear testing in the South Pacific: A longitudinal study of consumer boycotts. International Marketing Review, 22 (2): 199–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fulmer, I. S., Barry, B., & Long, D. A. 2009. Lying and smiling: Informational and emotional deception in negotiation. Journal of Business Ethics, 88 (4): 691–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ger, G., & Belk, R. W. 1996. Cross-cultural differences in materialism. Journal of Economic Psychology, 17 (1): 55–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ghose, S., & Lowengart, O. 2001. Perceptual positioning of international, national and private brands in a growing international market: An empirical study. Journal of Brand Management, 9 (1): 45–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gong, W. 2003. Chinese consumer behavior: A cultural framework and implications. Journal of American Academy of Business, 3 (1/2): 373–380.Google Scholar
  39. Griffin, M., Babin, B. J., & Christensen, F. 2004. A cross-cultural investigation of the materialism construct: Assessing the Richins and Dawson's materialism scale in Denmark, France and Russia. Journal of Business Research, 57 (8): 893–900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gurhan-Canli, Z., & Maheswaran, D. 2000. Cultural variations in country of origin effects. Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (3): 309–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hamin, G. E. 2006. A less-developed country perspective of consumer ethnocentrism and “country of origin” effects: Indonesian evidence. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 18 (2): 79–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Han, C. M. 1989. Country image: Halo or summary construct? Journal of Marketing Research, 26 (2): 222–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Han, C. M., & Terpstra, V. 1988. Country-of-origin effects for uni-national and bi-national products. Journal of International Business Studies, 19 (2): 235–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Harman, H. H. 1967. Modern factor analysis. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  45. Häubl, G., & Elrod, T. 1999. The impact of congruity between brand name and country of production on consumers’ product quality judgments. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 16 (3): 199–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hong, S. T., & Wyer, R. S. 1989. Effects of country-of-origin and product attribute information on product evaluation: An information processing perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (2): 175–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hong, S. T., & Wyer, R. S. 1990. Determinants of product evaluation: Effects of the time interval between knowledge of a product's country of origin and information about its specific attributes. Journal of Consumer Research, 17 (3): 277–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. 1999. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6 (1): 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hu, X., Li, L., Xie, C., & Zhou, J. 2008. The effects of country-of-origin on Chinese consumers’ wine purchasing behaviour. Journal of Technology Management in China, 3 (3): 292–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Huddleston, P., Good, L. K., & Stoel, L. 2001. Consumer ethnocentrism, product necessity and Polish consumers’ perceptions of quality. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 29 (5): 236–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hult, G. T. M., Ketchen, D. J., Griffith, D. A., Finnegan, C. A., Gonzalez-Padron, T., Harmancioglu, N., Huang, Y., Talay, M. B., & Cavusgil, S. T. 2008. Data equivalence in cross-cultural international business research: Assessment and guidelines. Journal of International Business Studies, 39 (6): 1027–1044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Johansson, J. K., & Thorelli, H. B. 1985. International product positioning. Journal of International Business Studies, 16 (3): 57–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Johansson, J. K., Ronkainen, I. A., & Czinkota, M. R. 1994. Negative country-of-origin effects: The case of the new Russia. Journal of International Business Studies, 25 (1): 157–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Josiassen, A., & Harzing, A.-W. 2008. Descending from the ivory tower: Reflections on the relevance and future of country-of-origin research. European Management Review, 5 (4): 264–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Josiassen, A., Lukas, B. A., & Whitwell, G. J. 2008. Country-of-origin contingencies: Competing perspectives on product familiarity and product involvement. International Marketing Review, 25 (4): 423–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kilbourne, W., Grünhagen, M., & Foley, J. 2005. A cross-cultural examination of the relationship between materialism and individual values. Journal of Economic Psychology, 26 (5): 624–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kinra, N. 2006. The effect of country-of-origin on foreign brand names in the Indian market. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 24 (1): 15–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Klein, J. G. 2002. Us versus them, or us versus everyone? Delineating consumer aversion to foreign goods. Journal of International Business Studies, 33 (2): 345–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Klein, J. G., & Ettenson, R. 1999. Consumer animosity and consumer ethnocentrism: An analysis of unique antecedents. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 11 (4): 5–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Klein, J. G., Ettenson, R., & Morris, M. D. 1998. The animosity model of foreign product purchase: An empirical test in the People's Republic of China. Journal of Marketing, 62 (1): 89–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Klein, J. G., Smith, N. C., & John, A. 2002. Exploring motivations for participation in a consumer boycott. Advances in Consumer Research, 29 (1): 363–369.Google Scholar
  62. Klein, J. G., Ettenson, R., & Krishnan, B. C. 2006. Extending the construct of consumer ethnocentrism: When foreign products are preferred. International Marketing Review, 23 (3): 304–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lee, J. A., Garbarino, E., & Lerman, D. 2007. How cultural differences in uncertainty avoidance affect product perceptions. International Marketing Review, 24 (3): 330–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Leong, S. M., Cote, J. A., Ang, S. H., Tan, S. J., Jung, K., Kau, A. K., & Pornpitakpan, C. 2008. Understanding consumer animosity in an international crisis: Nature, antecedents, and consequences. Journal of International Business Studies, 39 (6): 996–1009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Leonidou, L. C., Palihawadana, D., & Talias, M. A. 2007. British consumers’ evaluations of US versus Chinese goods: A multi-level and multi-cue comparison. European Journal of Marketing, 41 (7/8): 786–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lichtenstein, D. R., Netemeyer, R. G., & Burton, S. 1990. Distinguishing coupon proneness from value consciousness: An acquisition-transaction utility theory perspective. Journal of Marketing, 54 (3): 54–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Manrai, L. A., Lascu, D.-N., Manrai, A. K., & Babb, H. W. 2001. A cross-cultural comparison of style in Eastern European emerging markets. International Marketing Review, 18 (3): 270–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. McLarney, C., & Chung, E. 1999. Post-materialism's “silent revolution” in consumer research. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 17 (6): 288–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Netemeyer, R. G., Durvasula, S., & Lichtenstein, D. R. 1991. A cross-national assessment of the reliability and validity of the CETSCALE. Journal of Marketing Research, 28 (3): 320–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nguyen, T. D., Nguyen, T. T. M., & Barrett, N. J. 2008. Consumer ethnocentrism, cultural sensitivity, and intention to purchase local products: Evidence from Vietnam. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 7 (1): 88–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nijssen, E. J., & Douglas, S. P. 2004. Examining the animosity model in a country with a high level of foreign trade. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 21 (1): 23–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Oberecker, E. M., Riefler, P., & Diamantopoulos, A. 2008. The consumer affinity construct: Conceptualization, qualitative investigation, and research agenda. Journal of International Marketing, 16 (3): 23–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Okechuku, C., & Onyemah, V. 1999. Nigerian consumer attitudes toward foreign and domestic products. Journal of International Business Studies, 30 (3): 611–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ouellet, J.-F. 2007. Consumer racism and its effects on domestic cross-ethnic product purchase: An empirical test in the United States, Canada, and France. Journal of Marketing, 71 (1): 113–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ozretic-Dosen, D., Skare, V., & Krupka, Z. 2007. Assessments of country of origin and brand cues in evaluating a Croatian, western and eastern European food product. Journal of Business Research, 60 (2): 130–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Papadopoulos, N., Heslop, L. A., & Bamossy, G. 1990. A comparative image analysis of domestic versus imported products. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 7 (4): 283–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pappu, R., Quester, P. G., & Cooksey, R. W. 2007. Country image and consumer-based brand equity: Relationships and implications for international marketing. Journal of International Business Studies, 38 (4): 726–745.Google Scholar
  78. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. 2003. Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88 (5): 879–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Reardon, J., Miller, C., Vida, I., & Kim, I. 2005. The effects of ethnocentrism and economic development on the formation of brand and ad attitudes in transitional economies. European Journal of Marketing, 39 (7/8): 737–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Richins, M. L. 2004. The material values scale: Measurement properties and development of a short form. Journal of Consumer Research, 31 (1): 209–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Richins, M. L., & Dawson, S. 1992. A consumer values orientation for materialism and its measurement: Scale development and validation. Journal of Consumer Research, 19 (3): 303–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Schaefer, A. 1997. Consumer knowledge and country of origin effects. European Journal of Marketing, 31 (1): 56–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Shankarmahesh, M. N. 2006. Consumer ethnocentrism: An integrative review of its antecedents and consequences. International Marketing Review, 23 (2): 146–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sharma, S., Shimp, T. A., & Shin, J. 1995. Consumer ethnocentrism: A test of antecedents and moderators. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 23 (1): 26–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sharma, P., Chung, C. M. Y., Erramilli, M. K., & Sivakumaran, B. 2006. Challenges of marketing to Asian consumers: Exploring the influence of different cultures, life-styles and values on consumer behaviour in Asia. In H.W.-C. Yeung (Ed.), The handbook of research on Asian business: 125–143. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  86. Sharma, P., Mathur, R., & Dhawan, A. 2008. Understanding consumer reactions to offshore outsourcing of customer services. In A. Becker (Ed.), Electronic commerce: Concepts, methodologies, tools and applications: 92–104. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Inc.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Shiha, T.-H., & Fan, X. 2009. Comparing response rates in e-mail and paper surveys: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 4 (1): 26–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Shimp, T. A., & Sharma, S. 1987. Consumer ethnocentrism: Construction and validation of the CETSCALE. Journal of Marketing Research, 24 (3): 280–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Shoham, A., Davidow, M., Klein, J. G., & Ruvio, A. 2006. Animosity on the home front: The Intifada in Israel and its impact on consumer behavior. Journal of International Marketing, 14 (3): 92–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Smith, W. R. 1993. Country-of-origin bias: A regional labeling solution. International Marketing Review, 10 (6): 4–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Steenkamp, J.-B. E. M., & Baumgartner, H. 1998. Assessing measurement invariance in cross-national consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 25 (1): 78–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Strizhakova, Y., Coulter, R. A., & Price, L. R. 2008. Branded products as a passport to global citizenship: Perspectives from developed and developing countries. Journal of International Marketing, 16 (4): 57–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Supphellen, M., & Grønhaug, K. 2003. Building foreign brand personalities in Russia: The moderating effect of consumer ethnocentrism. International Journal of Advertising, 22 (2): 203–226.Google Scholar
  94. Tse, D. K., Belk, R. W., & Zhou, N. 1989. Becoming a consumer society: A longitudinal and cross-cultural content analysis of print ads from Hong Kong, the People's Republic of China, and Taiwan. Journal of Consumer Research, 15 (4): 457–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Usunier, J.-C. 1994. Social status and country-of-origin preferences. Journal of Marketing Management, 10 (8): 765–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Usunier, J.-C. 2006. Relevance in business research: The case of country-of-origin research in marketing. European Management Review, 3 (1): 60–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Usunier, J.-C., & Cestre, G. 2008. Further considerations on the relevance of country-of-origin research. European Management Review, 5 (4): 271–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Verlegh, P. W. J. 2007. Home country bias in product evaluation: The complementary roles of economic and socio-psychological motives. Journal of International Business Studies, 38 (3): 361–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Verlegh, P. W. J., & Steenkamp, J.-B. E. M. 1999. A review and meta-analysis of country-of-origin research. Journal of Economic Psychology, 20 (5): 521–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wagner, D. 2008. International perspectives on counterfeit trade. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49 (4): 9–10.Google Scholar
  101. Wang, C. L., & Chen, Z. X. 2004. Consumer ethnocentrism and willingness to buy domestic products in a developing country setting: Testing moderating effects. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 21 (6): 391–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wang, X., & Yang, Z. 2008. Does country-of-origin matter in the relationship between brand personality and purchase intention in emerging economies? Evidence from China's auto industry. International Marketing Review, 25 (4): 458–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wheaton, B., Muthen, B., Alwin, D. F., & Summers, G. F. 1977. Assessing reliability and stability in panel models. In D. R. Heise (Ed.), Sociological methodology: 84–136. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  104. Wong, N. Y., & Ahuvia, A. C. 1998. Personal taste and family face: Luxury consumption in Confucian and Western societies. Psychology & Marketing, 15 (5): 423–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Yu, J. H., & Albaum, G. 2002. Sovereignty change influences on consumer ethnocentrism and product preferences: Hong Kong revisited one year later. Journal of Business Research, 55 (11): 891–899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Zhou, L., & Hui, M. K. 2003. Symbolic value of foreign products in the People's Republic of China. Journal of International Marketing, 11 (2): 36–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Academy of International Business 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Piyush Sharma
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Management and MarketingThe Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityKowloonHong Kong

Personalised recommendations