The Uppsala internationalization process model is revisited in the light of changes in business practices and theoretical advances that have been made since 1977. Now the business environment is viewed as a web of relationships, a network, rather than as a neoclassical market with many independent suppliers and customers. Outsidership, in relation to the relevant network, more than psychic distance, is the root of uncertainty. The change mechanisms in the revised model are essentially the same as those in the original version, although we add trust-building and knowledge creation, the latter to recognize the fact that new knowledge is developed in relationships.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Agndal, H., & Chetty, S. 2007. The impact of relationships on changes in internationalisation strategies of SMEs. European Journal of Marketing, 41 (11/12): 1449–1474.
Aharoni, Y. 1966. The foreign investment decision process. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Alchian, A. A., & Allen, W. R. 1964. Exchange & production: Theory in use. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
Andall, A., & Fischer, M. 2005. The death, birth … of internationalization: A literary review, MSc thesis, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University.
Andersen, O. 1993. On the internationalization process of firms: A critical analysis. Journal of International Business Studies, 24 (2): 209–232.
Anderson, E., & Weitz, B. 1992. The use of pledges to build and sustain commitment in distribution channels. Journal of Marketing Research, 29 (1): 18–34.
Anderson, J. C., Håkansson, H., & Johanson, J. 1994. Dyadic business relationships within a business network context. Journal of Marketing, 58 (4): 1–15.
Andersson, U., Johanson, J., & Vahlne, J.-E. 1997. Organic acquisitions in the internationalization process of the business firm. Management International Review, 37 (2): 67–84.
Andersson, U., Holm, D. B., & Johanson, M. 2005. Opportunities, relational embeddedness and network structure. In P. Ghauri, A. Hadjikhani, & J. Johanson (Eds), Managing opportunity development in business networks: 27–48. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Ardichvili, A., Cardozo, R., & Ray, S. 2003. A theory of entrepreneurial opportunity identification and development. Journal of Business Venturing, 18 (1): 105–123.
Arenius, P. 2005. The psychic distance postulate revised: From market selection to speed of market penetration. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 3 (2): 115–131.
Argote, L. 1999. Organizational learning: Creating, retaining and transferring knowledge. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Autio, E. 2005. Creative tension: The significance of Ben Oviatt's and Patricia McDougall's article “Toward a theory of international new ventures”. Journal of International Business Studies, 36 (1): 9–19.
Axelsson, B., & Johanson, J. 1992. Foreign market entry: The textbook vs the network view. In B. Axelsson & G. Easton (Eds), Industrial networks: A new view of reality: 218–231. London: Routledge.
Barkema, H. G., & Drogendijk, R. 2007. Internationalising in small, incremental or larger steps? Journal of International Business Studies, 38 (7): 1132–1148.
Barkema, H. G., & Vermeulen, F. 1998. International expansion through start-up or acquisition: A learning perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 41 (1): 7–26.
Barkema, H. G., Bell, J. H. J., & Pennings, J. M. 1996. Foreign entry, cultural barriers, and learning. Strategic Management Journal, 17 (2): 151–166.
Barney, J. 1986. Strategic factor markets: Expectations, luck and business strategy. Management Science, 17 (1): 99–120.
Benito, G. B. G., & Tomassen, S. 2003. The micro-mechanics of foreign operations’ performance: An analysis on the OLI framework. In J. Cantwell & R. Narula (Eds), International business and the eclectic paradigm: Developing the OLI framework: 174–199. London: Routledge.
Bilkey, W. J., & Tesar, G. 1977. The export behavior of smaller-sized Wisconsin manufacturing firms. Journal of International Business Studies, 8 (1): 93–98.
Birkinshaw, J. 1997. Entrepreneurship in multinational corporations: The characteristics of subsidiary initiatives. Strategic Management Journal, 18 (3): 207–230.
Bjerre, M., & Sharma, D. D. 2003. Is marketing knowledge international? A case of key accounts. In A. Blomstermo & D. D. Sharma (Eds), Learning in the internationalisation process of firms: 123–141. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Blankenburg Holm, D., Eriksson, K., & Johanson, J. 1999. Creating value through mutual commitment to business network relationships. Strategic Management Journal, 20 (5): 467–486.
Boersma, M. F., Buckley, P. J., & Ghauri, P. N. 2003. Trust in international joint venture relationships. Journal of Business Research, 56 (12): 1031–1042.
Bonaccorsi, A. 1992. On the relationship between firm size and international export intensity. Journal of International Business Studies, 23 (4): 605–635.
Buckley, P. J., & Casson, M. 1976. The future of the multinational enterprise. New York: Holmes & Meier.
Buckley, P. J., & Casson, M. 1998. Models of the multinational enterprise. Journal of International Business Studies, 29 (1): 21–44.
Burt, R. S. 1992. Structural holes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Carlson, S. 1975. How foreign is foreign trade? A problem in international business research. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Studia Oeconomiae Negotiorum 11.
Cavusgil, S. T. 1980. On the internationalization process of firms. European Research, 8 (November): 273–281.
Chang, S. J. 1995. International expansion strategy of Japanese firms: Capability building through sequential entry. Academy of Management Journal, 38 (2): 383–407.
Chen, H., & Chen, T.-J. 1998. Network linkages and location choice in foreign direct investment. Journal of International Business Studies, 29 (3): 445–468.
Chetty, S., & Blankenburg Holm, D. 2000. Internationalisation of small to medium-sized manufacturing firms: A network approach. International Business Review, 9 (1): 77–93.
Cohen, W. M., & Levinthal, D. A. 1990. Absorptive capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35 (2): 128–152.
Contractor, F. J., & Lorange, P. 2002. The growth of alliances in the knowledge-based economy. International Business Review, 11 (4): 485–502.
Cook, K. S., & Emerson, R. M. 1978. Power, equity and commitment in exchange networks. American Sociological Review, 43 (5): 721–738.
Coviello, N. E. 2006. The network dynamics of international new ventures. Journal of International Business Studies, 37 (5): 713–731.
Coviello, N. E., & Munro, H. 1995. Growing the entrepreneurial firm: Networking for international market development. European Journal of Marketing, 29 (7): 49–61.
Coviello, N. E., & Munro, H. 1997. Network relationships and the internationalisation process of small software firms. International Business Review, 6 (4): 361–386.
Cowley, P. R. 1988. Market structure and business performance: An evaluation of buyer/seller power in the PIMS database. Strategic Management Journal, 9 (3): 271–278.
Cunningham, M. T., & Homse, E. 1986. Controlling the marketing-purchasing interface: Resource development and organisational implications. Industrial Marketing and Purchasing, 1 (2): 3–27.
Cyert, R. D., & March, J. G. 1963. A behavioral theory of the firm. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Delios, A., & Beamish, P. W. 2001. Survival and profitability: The roles of experience and intangible assets in foreign subsidiary performance. Academy of Management Journal, 44 (5): 1028–1038.
Denrell, J., Fang, C., & Winter, S. G. 2003. The economics of strategic opportunity. Strategic Management Journal, 24 (10): 977–990.
Dunning, J. H. 1980. Towards an eclectic theory of international production: Some empirical tests. Journal of International Business Studies, 11 (1): 9–31.
Dunning, J. H. 1997. Alliance capitalism and global business. London: Routledge.
Dunning, J. H., & Lundan, S. 2008. Multinational enterprises and the global economy, (2nd ed.). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Dwyer, F. R., Schurr, P. H., & Oh, S. 1987. Developing buyer–seller relationships. Journal of Marketing, 51 (2): 11–27.
Dyer, J. H., & Singh, H. 1998. The relational view: Cooperative strategy and sources of interorganizational competitive advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23 (4): 550–679.
Elango, B., & Pattnaik, C. 2007. Building capabilities for international operations through networks: A study of Indian firms. Journal of International Business Studies, 38 (4): 541–555.
Ellis, P. D. 2000. Social ties and foreign market entry. Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (3): 443–469.
Ellis, P. D. 2001. Adaptive strategies of trading companies. International Business Review, 10 (2): 235–259.
Eriksson, K., Johanson, J., Majkgård, A., & Sharma, D. D. 1997. Experiential knowledge and cost in the internationalization process. Journal of International Business Studies, 28 (2): 337–360.
Erramilli, M. K. 1991. The experience factor in foreign market entry behavior of service firms. Journal of International Business Studies, 22 (3): 479–501.
Erramilli, M. K., & Rao, C. P. 1990. Choice of foreign market entry mode by service firms: Role of market knowledge. Management International Review, 30 (2): 135–150.
Ford, D. (Ed.) 1997. Understanding business markets. London: The Dryden Press.
Forsgren, M. 2002. The concept of learning in the Uppsala internationalization process model: A critical view. International Business Review, 11 (3): 257–278.
Forsgren, M., & Kinch, N. 1970. Företagets anpassning till förändringar i omgivande system. En studie av massa- och pappersindustrin (The adaptation of the firm to changes in surrounding systems). Uppsala: Department of Business Studies.
Forsgren, M., Holm, U., & Johanson, J. 2005. Managing the embedded multinational: A business network view. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Galbraith, J. R. 1973. Designing complex organizations. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Gelbuda, M., Starkus, A., Zidonis, Z., & Tamasevicius, V. 2003. Learning in the internationalization process. A case for organizational identity and interpretative capacity, Proceedings of the 29th EIBA Conference, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
Ghauri, P., Hadjikhani, A., & Johanson, J. (Eds) 2005. Managing opportunity development in business networks. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Gounaris, S. P. 2005. Trust and commitment influences on customer retention: Insights from business-to-business services. Journal of Business Research, 58 (2): 126–140.
Granovetter, M. 1985. Economic action and social structure: The problem of embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91 (3): 481–510.
Granovetter, M. 1992. Problems of explanation in economic sociology. In N. Nohria & R. G. Eccles (Eds), Networks and organizations: Structure, form and action: 25–56. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Griffith, D. A., & Myers, M. B. 2005. The performance implications of strategic fit of relational norm governance strategies in global supply chain relationships. Journal of International Business Studies, 36 (3): 254–269.
Hadjikhani, A. 1997. A note on the criticisms against the internationalization process model. Management International Review, 37 (2): 43–66.
Hägg, I., & Johanson, J. (Eds) 1982. Företag i nätverk (Firms in networks). Stockholm: SNS.
Håkansson, H. (Ed.) 1982. International marketing and purchasing of industrial goods: An interaction approach. Cheltenham: Wiley.
Håkansson, H. 1989. Corporate technological behaviour: Co-operation and networks. London: Routledge.
Håkansson, H., & Östberg, C. 1975. Industrial marketing: An organizational problem? Industrial Marketing Management, 4 (2/3): 113–123.
Håkansson, H., & Snehota, I. (Eds) 1995. Developing relationships in business networks. London: Routledge.
Hallén, L. 1986. A comparison of strategic marketing approaches. In P. W. Turnbull & J.-P. Valla (Eds), Strategies for international industrial marketing: 235–249. London: Croom Helm.
Hallén, L., Johanson, J., & Seyed-Mohamed, N. 1991. Interfirm adaptation in business relationships. Journal of Marketing, 55 (2): 29–37.
Hedlund, G., & Kverneland, Å. 1985. Are strategies for foreign market entry changing? The case of Swedish investments in Japan. International Studies of Management and Organization, 15 (2): 41–59.
Hennart, J.-F. 1982. A theory of multinational enterprise. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Hoang, H., & Rothaermel, F. T. 2005. The effect of general and partner-specific alliance experience on joint R&D project performance. Academy of Management Journal, 48 (2): 332–345.
Hohenthal, J. 2001. The creation of international business relationships: Experience and performance in the internationalization process, PhD thesis, Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University.
Hohenthal, J. 2006. Managing interdependent business relationships in SME internationalization. In A. Hadjikhani, J.-W. Lee, & J. Johanson (Eds), Business networks and international marketing. 209–222. Seoul: Doo Yang.
Hood, N. & Young, S. 1979. Economics of multinational enterprise. London: Longman.
Hörnell, E., Vahlne, J.-E., & Wiedersheim-Paul, F. 1973. Export och utlandsetableringar (Export and foreign establishments). Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell.
Hsu, C.-C., & Pereira, A. 2008. Internationalization and performance: The moderating effects of organizational learning. Omega, 36 (2): 188–205.
Hymer, S. 1976. International operations of national firms: A study of foreign direct investment. Boston, MA: MIT Press.
Ivarsson, I., & Vahlne, J.-E. 2002. Technology integration through international acquisitions: The case of foreign manufacturing TNCs in Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 18 (1): 1–27.
Johanson, J. 1966. Svenskt kvalitetsstål på utländska marknader (Swedish special steel in foreign markets), FL thesis, Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University.
Johanson, J., & Mattsson, L.-G. 1987. Interorganizational relations in industrial systems: A network approach compared with the transaction cost approach. International Studies of Management and Organization, 17 (1): 34–48.
Johanson, J., & Mattsson, L.-G. 1988. Internationalisation in industrial systems: A network approach. In N. Hood & J.-E. Vahlne (Eds), Strategies in global competition: 468–486. London: Croom Helm.
Johanson, J., & Vahlne, J.-E. 1977. The internationalization process of the firm: A model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitments. Journal of International Business Studies, 8 (1): 23–32.
Johanson, J., & Vahlne, J.-E. 1990. The mechanism of internationalisation. International Marketing Review, 7 (4): 11–24.
Johanson, J., & Vahlne, J.-E. 1993. Management of internationalization. In L. Zan, S. Zambon, & A. M. Pettigrew (Eds), Perspectives on strategic change: 43–71. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Johanson, J., & Vahlne, J.-E. 2003. Business relationship learning and commitment in the internationalization process. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 1 (1): 83–101.
Johanson, J., & Vahlne, J.-E. 2006. Commitment and opportunity development in the internationalization process: A note on the Uppsala internationalization process model. Management International Review, 46 (2): 1–14.
Johanson, J., & Wiedersheim-Paul, F. 1975. The internationalization of the firm: Four Swedish cases. Journal of Management Studies, 12 (3): 305–322.
Kay, N. M. 2005. Penrose and the growth of multinational firms. Managerial and Decision Economics, 26 (2): 99–112.
Kelley, H. H., & Thibaut, J. W. 1978. Interpersonal relations: A theory of interdependence. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Kirzner, I. M. 1973. Competition and entrepreneurship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kirzner, I. M. 1997. Entrepreneurial discovery and the competitive market process: An Austrian approach. Journal of Economic Literature, 35 (1): 60–85.
Knight, G. A., & Cavusgil, S. T. 1996. The born global firm: A challenge to traditional internationalization theory. Advances in International Marketing, 8: 11–26.
Kogut, B. 2000. The network as knowledge: Generative rules and the emergence of structure. Strategic Management Journal, 21 (3): 405–425.
Larson, A. 1992. Network dyads in entrepreneurial settings: A study of the governance of exchange relationships. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37 (1): 76–104.
Li, J. 1995. Foreign entry and survival: Effects of strategic choices on performance in international markets. Strategic Management Journal, 19 (3): 333–352.
Loane, S., & Bell, J. 2006. Rapid internationalisation among entrepreneurial firms in Australia, Canada, Ireland and New Zealand: An extension to the network approach. International Marketing Review, 23 (5): 467–485.
Luo, Y., & Peng, M. 1999. Learning to compete in a transition economy: Experience, environment and performance. Journal of International Business Studies, 30 (2): 269–295.
Madhok, A. 1995. Revisiting multinational firms’ tolerance for joint ventures: A trust-based approach. Journal of International Business Studies, 26 (1): 345–369.
Madhok, A. 2006. How much does ownership really matter? Equity and trust relations in joint ventures. Journal of International Business Studies, 37 (1): 4–11.
Madsen, T. K., & Servais, P. 1997. The internationalization of born globals: An evolutionary perspective. International Business Review, 6 (6): 561–583.
Majkgård, A., & Sharma, D. D. 1998. Client-following and market-seeking in the internationalization of service firms. Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, 4 (3): 1–41.
March, J. G. 1991. Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2 (1): 71–87.
Martin, X., Swaminathan, A., & Mitchell, W. 1998. Organizational evolution in the interorganizational environment: Incentives and constraints on international expansion strategy. Administrative Science Quarterly, 43 (3): 566–601.
Mathieu, J. E., & Zajac, D. M. 1990. A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychological Bulletin, 108 (2): 171–194.
Mintzberg, H. 1979. The structuring of organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Moen, O., & Servais, P. 2002. Born global or gradual global? Examining export behavior of small and medium-sized companies. Journal of International Marketing, 10 (3): 49–72.
Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. 1994. The commitment–trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58 (3): 20–38.
Murray, J. Y., Kotabe, M., & Zhou, J. N. 2005. Strategic alliance-based sourcing and market performance: Evidence from foreign firms operating in China. Journal of International Business Studies, 36 (2): 187–208.
Nadolska, A., & Barkema, H. G. 2007. Learning to internationalise: The pace and success of foreign acquisitions. Journal of International Business Studies, 38 (7): 1170–1186.
Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. 1998. Social capital, intellectual capital and the organizational advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23 (2): 242–267.
Nellbeck, L. 1967. Trävaruexport – distributionsvägar och förbrukning (Wood export – distribution channels and usage). Stockholm: Scandinavian University Books.
Nelson, R. R., & Winter, S. G. 1982. An evolutionary theory of economic change. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
Oviatt, B. M., & McDougall, P. P. 1994. Toward a theory of international new ventures. Journal of International Business Studies, 25 (1): 45–64.
Oviatt, B. M., & McDougall, P. P. 2005. The internationalization of entrepreneurship. Journal of International Business Studies, 36 (1): 2–8.
Padmanabhan, P., & Cho, K. R. 1999. Decision specific experience in foreign ownership and establishment strategies: Evidence from Japanese firms. Journal of International Business Studies, 30 (1): 25–44.
Penrose, E. T. 1966. The theory of the growth of the firm. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Petersen, B., Pedersen, T., & Sharma, D. D. 2003. The role of knowledge in firms’ internationalisation process: Wherefrom and whereto? In A. Blomstermo & D. D. Sharma (Eds), Learning in the internationalisation process of firms: 36–55. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Pitelis, C. 2007. Edith Penrose and a learning-based perspective on the MNE and OLI. Management International Review, 47 (2): 207–219.
Powell, W. W. 1990. Neither market nor hierarchy. Research in Organizational Behaviour, 12: 295–336.
Pyndt, J., & Pedersen, T. 2006. Managing global offshoring strategies. Fredriksberg: Copenhagen Business School Press.
Reihlen, M., & Apel, B. A. 2005. Internationalization of professional service firms as learning: A constructivist approach. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 18 (2): 140–151.
Reuber, A. R., & Fischer, E. 1997. The influence of the management team's international experience on the internationalization behaviors of SMEs. Journal of International Business Studies, 28 (4): 807–825.
Ring, P. S., & van de Ven, A. H. 1992. Structuring cooperative relationships between organizations. Strategic Management Journal, 13 (7): 483–498.
Rugman, A. M. 1981. Inside the multinationals: The economics of internal markets. New York: Columbia University Press.
Rugman, A. M., & Verbeke, A. 2004. A perspective on regional and global strategies of multinational enterprises. Journal of International Business Studies, 35 (1): 3–18.
Rugman, A. M., & Verbeke, A. 2007. Liabilities of foreignness and the use of firm-level versus country-level data: A response to Dunning et al. (2007). Journal of International Business Studies, 38 (1): 200–205.
Sandén, P., & Vahlne, J.-E. 1976. The advantage cycle, Unpublished research paper, Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University.
Sapienza, H. J., Autio, E., George, G., & Zahra, S. A. 2006. A capabilities perspective on the effects of early internationalization on firm survival and growth. Academy of Management Review, 31 (4): 914–933.
Sarasvathy, S. D. 2001. Causation and effectuation: Toward a theoretical shift from economic inevitability to entrepreneurial contingency. Academy of Management Review, 26 (2): 243–263.
Schumpeter, J. A. 1934. The theory of economic development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Shane, S. 2000. Prior knowledge and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities. Organization Science, 11 (4): 448–469.
Sharma, D. D., & Johanson, J. 1987. Technical consultancy in internationalization. International Marketing Review, 4 (4): 20–29.
Shenkar, O. 2001. Cultural distance revisited: Towards a more rigorous conceptualisation and measurement of cultural differences. Journal of International Business Studies, 32 (3): 519–535.
Snehota, I. 1990. Notes on a theory of business enterprise. Uppsala: Department of Business Studies.
Sousa, C. M. P., & Bradley, F. 2006. Cultural distance and psychic distance: Two peas in a pod? Journal of International Marketing, 14 (1): 49–70.
Steen, J. T., & Liesch, P. W. 2007. A note on Penrosean growth, resource bundles and the Uppsala model of internationalisation. Management International Review, 47 (2): 193–206.
Thorelli, H. B. 1986. Networks: Between markets and hierarchies. Strategic Management Journal, 7 (1): 35–51.
Turnbull, P. W., & Valla, J.-P. (Eds) 1986. Strategies for international, industrial marketing. London: Croom Helm.
United Nations. 2000. World investment report. Geneva: UN.
Vahlne, J.-E., & Johanson, J. 2002. New technology, new business environments and new internationalization processes? In V. Havila, M. Forsgren, & H. Håkansson (Eds), Critical perspectives on internationalization: 209–228. London: Pergamon.
Vahlne, J.-E., & Wiedersheim-Paul, F. 1973. Ekonomiskt avstånd: Modell och empirisk undersökning (Economic distance: Model and empirical investigation). In E. Hörnell, J.-E. Vahlne, & F. Wiedersheim-Paul (Eds), Export och Utlandsetableringar (Export and foreign establishments). 81–159. Uppsala: Almqvist och Wiksell.
von Hippel, E. A. 1988. The sources of innovation. New York: Oxford University Press.
Weick, K. E. 1995. Sensemaking in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Welch, D. E., & Welch, L. S. 1996. The internationalization process and networks: A strategic management perspective. Journal of International Marketing, 4 (3): 11–28.
Welch, L. S., & Luostarinen, R. 1988. Internationalization: Evolution of a concept. Journal of General Management, 17 (3): 333–334.
Wiedersheim-Paul, F., Olson, H.-C., & Welch, L. S. 1978. Pre-export activity: The first step in internationalization. Journal of International Business Studies, 8 (1): 47–58.
Zaheer, S. 1995. Overcoming the liability of foreignness. Academy of Management Journal, 38 (2): 341–363.
Zahra, S. A., Ireland, R. D., & Hitt, M. A. 2000. International expansion by new venture firms: International diversity, mode of market entry, technological learning, and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 43 (5): 925–960.
Zajac, E. J., & Olsen, C. P. 1993. From transaction cost to transactional value analysis: Implications for the study of organizational strategies. Journal of Management Studies, 39 (1): 131–145.
The authors thank numerous colleagues, students, and authors of IB articles who through the years have contributed views and remarks, critical and encouraging. We also thank the editor, Alain Verbeke, and three anonymous reviewers who helped put this paper in a much better shape. We express gratitude to the Torsten and Ragnar Söderberg Foundations for financial assistance.
Accepted by Alain Verbeke, Area Editor, 4 November 2008. This paper has been with the authors for four revisions.
About this article
Cite this article
Johanson, J., Vahlne, JE. The Uppsala internationalization process model revisited: From liability of foreignness to liability of outsidership. J Int Bus Stud 40, 1411–1431 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1057/jibs.2009.24
- internationalization theories and foreign market entry
- network relations theory
- experiential knowledge