Journal of International Business Studies

, Volume 40, Issue 8, pp 1396–1405 | Cite as

Preferred leadership prototypes of male and female leaders in 27 countries

  • Lori D Paris
  • Jon P Howell
  • Peter W Dorfman
  • Paul J Hanges
Research Note


Our study shows that preferred leadership prototypes held by female leaders differ from the prototypes held by male leaders, and that these prototype differences vary across countries, cultures, and especially industries. In general, female managers prefer participative, team oriented, and charismatic leadership prototype dimensions more than males. Contrary to popular belief, both males and females valued humane-oriented leadership equally. Gender egalitarianism and industry type were important moderators of the gender–leadership prototype relationship. Gender egalitarianism increased females' desire for participative leadership, while prototype differences between genders were magnified in the finance and food industries.


cross-cultural management leadership theories gender equality GLOBE 



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Copyright information

© Academy of International Business 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lori D Paris
    • 1
  • Jon P Howell
    • 2
  • Peter W Dorfman
    • 2
  • Paul J Hanges
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Business and Public Administration, California State UniversityBakersfieldUSA
  2. 2.Department of ManagementCollege of Business, New Mexico State UniversityLas CrucesUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA

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