International Politics

, Volume 53, Issue 3, pp 303–323 | Cite as

Who is keeping the peace and who is free-riding? NATO middle powers and Burden Sharing, 1995–2001

  • Benjamin Zyla
Original Article

Abstract

The objective of this article is to test the free-riding hypothesis submitted by collective action theorists, and to ask the following research questions: What slice of the military burden did middle powers share in NATO’s first out-of-area operations in the Balkans between 1995 and2001? And what, if anything, can we infer from this? We concentrate on NATO’s Implementation Force (IFOR), Stabilization Force (SFOR) and Kosovo Force (KFOR) operations and show that based on a so-called relative force share index middle powers shouldered a disproportionately high relative share in those peace operations. From this finding we draw a number of inferences for burden sharing studies and show avenues of future research.

Keywords

NATO burden sharing transatlantic relations peace-operations Balkans middle powers 

References

  1. Asmus, R.D., Kugler, R.L. and Larrabee, F.S. (1993) Building a new NATO. Foreign Affairs 72 (4): 28–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Auerswald, D. P. and Saideman, S. M. (2014) NATO in Afghanistan: Fighting Together, Fighting Alone. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bennett, A., Lepgold, J. and Unger, D. (1994) Burden-Sharing in the Persian Gulf war. International Organization 48 (1): 39–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bennett, A., Lepgold, J. and Unger, D. (1997) Friends in Need: Burden Sharing in the Persian Gulf War, 1st edn. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  5. Betts, A. (2003) Public goods theory and the provision of refugee protection: The role of the joint-product model in Burden-Sharing theory. Journal of Refugee Studies 16 (3): 273–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Booth, K. (2005) Critical Security Studies and World Politics. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  7. Boyer, M.A. (1993) International Cooperation and Public Goods: Opportunities for the Western Alliance. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Brooks, S.G. and Wohlforth, C.W. (2008) World Out of Balance: International Relations and the Challenge of American Primacy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chandler, D. and Hynek, N. (2010) Critical Perspectives on Human Security: Rethinking Emancipation and Power in International Relations. Abingdon, UK; New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Chapnick, A. (2005) The Middle Power Project: Canada and the Founding of the United Nations. Vancouver, Canada: UBC Press.Google Scholar
  11. Christiansen, T., Knud, E.J. and Wiener, A. (2001) The Social Construction of Europe. London; Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.Google Scholar
  12. Coker, C. (1990) Shifting into Neutral?: Burden Sharing in the Western Alliance in the 1990’s, 1st edn. London; Washington DC: Brassey’s.Google Scholar
  13. Congressional Research Service (2003) Kosovo and Macedonia: US and Allied Military Operations. In Issue Brief for Congress. Washington DC: 8 July.Google Scholar
  14. Cooper, A., Fenton, R., Higgott, A. and Nossal, K.R. (1993) Relocating Middle Powers: Australia and Canada in a Changing World Order. Vancouver, Canada: UBC Press.Google Scholar
  15. Dawson, G. (2013) Player, partner and friend: Canada’s Africa policy since 1945. International Politics 50 (3): 412–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fiscarelli, R. (1990) Europe Is Grabbing the Spoils of Peace. The New York Times 9 March: A35.Google Scholar
  17. Forster, P.K. and Cimbala, S.J. (2005) The US, NATO and Military Burden-Sharing. London, New York: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
  18. Gaddis, J.L. (2005) The Cold War: A New History. New York: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  19. Gates, R.M. (2011) The Security and Defense Agenda (Future of NATO). A Speech Delivered by Secretary of Defense, Brussels, Belgium,10 June, 2011. Brussels: U.S. Department of Defense.Google Scholar
  20. Gheciu, A. (2005) NATO in the ‘New Europe’: The Politics of International Socialization after the Cold War. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Gilpin, R. and Gilpin, J.M. (1987) The Political Economy of International Relations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Glasius, M. and Kaldor, M. (2005) A Human Security Doctrine for Europe: Project, Principles, Possibilities, 1st edn. New York: Routlege.Google Scholar
  23. Gnesotto, N. (2004) European Defence: A Proposal for a White Paper. Paris: European Union Institute for Security Studies.Google Scholar
  24. Gordon, M.R. (1989) U.S. War Game in West Germany to Be Cut Back. The New York Times 14 December: A23.Google Scholar
  25. Hansen, L., James, C.M. and Sandler, T. (1990) On distinguishing the behaviour of nuclear and non-nuclear allies in NATO. Defence Economics 1 (1): 37–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hartley, K. and Sandler, T. (1999) NATO Burden-Sharing: Past and future. Journal of Peace Research 36 (6): 665–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hauser, G. and Kernic, F. (2006) European Security in Transition. Aldershot, UK; Burlington, VT: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  28. Hendrickson, R.C. (2006) Diplomacy and War at NATO: The Secretary General and Military Action after the Cold War. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press.Google Scholar
  29. Henius, J. and MacDonald, J.L. (2012) Smart Defence: A Critical Appraisal. Rome: NATO Defence College. NDC FOrum Paper.Google Scholar
  30. Holbraad, C. (1984) Middle Powers in International Politics. New York: St. Martin’s Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Joffe, J. (1987) The Limited Partnership: Europe, the United States, and the Burdens of Alliance. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  32. Joffe, J. (1992) Collective security and the future of Europe: Failed dreams and dead ends. Survival 34 (1): 36–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Judah, T. (2002) Kosovo: War and Revenge, 2nd edn. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Judah, T. (2005–2006) Kosovo’s moment of truth. Survival 47 (4): 73–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kaplan, L.S. (2004) NATO Divided, NATO United: The Evolution of an Alliance. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  36. Kashmeri, S.A. (2011) NATO 2.0: Reboot or Delete? Washington DC: Potomac Books.Google Scholar
  37. Kaufman, S.J., Little, R. and Wohlforth, W.C. (2007) The Balance of Power in World History. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Keohane, R.O. (1969) Lilliputians’ dilemmas: Small states in international politics. International Organization 23 (2): 291–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Keohane, R.O. and Martin, L.L. (1995) The promise of institutional theory. International Security 20 (1): 39–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kitchen, V.M. (2010) The Globalization of NATO: Intervention, Security and Identity. London; New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  41. Kleinschmidt, H. (2006) Migration, Regional Integration and Human Security: The Formation and Maintenance of Transnational Spaces. Aldershot, UK; Burlington, VT: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  42. Kupchan, C.A. (1988) NATO and the Persian Gulf: Examining intra-alliance behavior. International Organization 42: 317–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kupchan, C.A. and Kupchan, C.A. (1991) Concerts, collective security, and the future of Europe. International Security 16: 114–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kupchan, C.A. and Kupchan, C.A. (1995) The promise of collective security. International Security 20 (1): 52–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. MacGregor, D.A. (2001) The Balkan limits to power and principle. Orbis 45 (1): 93–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. March, J. G. and Olson, J. P. (1989) Rediscovering Institutions: The organizational basis of politics. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  47. Markham, J.M. (20 July, 1989) For Europe, a New Look: Bush Fixes U.S. Role as More Modest One. The New York Times: A9.Google Scholar
  48. Marsh, S. (2006) The United States and the common European security and defence policy. In: J. Baylis and J. Roper (eds.) The United States and Europe: Beyond the Neo-Conservative Divide? New York: Routledge, pp. 89–106.Google Scholar
  49. Martin, M. and Kaldor, M. (2009) The European Union and Human Security: External Interventions and Missions. London; New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. Mearsheimer, J.J. (1995) A realist reply. International Security 20 (1): 82–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Merritt, R.L. and Zinnes, D.A. (1988) Validity of power indices. International Interactions 14 (2): 141–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Murdoch, J.C. and Sandler, T. (1982) A theoretical and empirical analysis of NATO. Journal of Conflict Resolution 26 (2): 237–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. New York Times (1988) Sharing (Which?) NATO Burdens. 16 June: A26.Google Scholar
  54. Olson, M. (1965) The Logic of Collective Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Olson, M. and Zeckhauser, R. (1966) An economic theory of alliances. Review of Economics and Statistics 48 (3): 266–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Oneal, J.R. (1990a) Testing the theory of collective action: NATO defense burdens, 1950–1984. Journal of Conflict Resolution 34 (3): 426–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Oneal, J.R. (1990b) The theory of collective action and Burden Sharing in NATO. International Organization 44 (3): 379–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Oneal, J.R. and Elrod, M.A. (1989) NATO Burden Sharing and the forces of change. International Studies Quarterly 33 (4): 435–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Palmer, G. (1991) Deterrence, defense spending, and elasticity: Alliance contributions to the public good. International Interactions 7 (2): 157–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pauly, M.V. (1970) Optimality, ‘public’ goods, and local governments: A general theoretical analysis. Journal of Political Economy 78 (3): 572–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pouliot, V. (2008) The logic of practicality: A theory of practice of security communities. International Organization 62 (2): 257–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rasmussen, A. F. (2011) Building security in an age of austerity, Keynote speech by NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen at the 2011 Munich Security Conference, 4 February, http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/opinions_70400.htm.
  63. Ravenhill, J. (1998) Cycles of middle power activism: Constraint and choice in Australian and Canadian foreign policies. Australian Journal of International Affairs 52 (3): 309–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Remarks by Defense Secretary Leon Panetta at Carnegie Europe (2011) Brussels, October 5, http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/texttrans/2011/10/20111005144250su0.9669001.html#axzz1n1Bt6i2O.
  65. Ringsmose, J. (2010) NATO Burden-Sharing redux: Continuity and change after the cold war. Contemporary Security Policy 31 (2): 319–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Roper, J. (1999) NATO’s new role in crisis management. The International Spectator 34 (2): 51–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Russett, B.M. (1970) What Price Vigilance?: The Burdens of National Defense. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Sandler, T. (1977) Impurity of defense: An Application to the economics of alliances. Kyklos 30 (3): 443–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sandler, T. and Cauley, J. (1975) On the economic theory of alliances. Journal of Conflict Resolution 19 (2): 330–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sandler, T., Cauley, J. and Forbes, J.F. (1980) In defence of a collective goods theory of alliances. Journal of Conflict Resolution 24 (3): 537–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sandler, T. and Forbes, J.F. (1980) Burden-Sharing, strategy, and the design of NATO. Economic Inquiry 18: 425–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sandler, T. and Hartley, K. (1995) The Economics of Defense. Cambridge, US: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Sandler, T. and Hartley, K. (1999) The Political Economy of NATO: Past, Present, and into the 21st Century. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sandler, T. and Hartley, K. (2001) Economics of alliances: The lessons for collective action. Journal of Economic Literature XXXIX: 869–896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sandler, T. and Shimizu, H. (2002) Peacekeeping and Burden-Sharing, 1994–2000. Journal of Peace Research 39 (6): 651–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sandler, T. and Shimizu, H. (2014) NATO Burden Sharing 1999–2010: An Altered Alliance. Foreign Policy Analysis 10 (1): 43–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schimmelpfennig, F. (1999) NATO enlargement: A constructivist explanation. Security Studies 8 (2): 198–234.Google Scholar
  78. Schmidt, P. and Zyla, B. (2012) European Security Policy and Strategic Culture. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  79. Schreer, B. and Noetzel, T. (2009) Does a multi-tier NATO matter? The Atlantic alliance and the process of strategic change. International Affairs 85 (2): 211–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Shea, J. (2002) NATO – Upholding ethics in international security policy. Cambridge Review of International Affairs 15 (1): 75–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shea, J. and Sherwen, N. (1990) NATO 2000: A Political Agenda for a Political Alliance, 1st edn. London; Washington DC: Brassey’s.Google Scholar
  82. Singer, J.D. (1988) Reconstructing the correlates of war dataset on material capabilities of states, 1816–1985. International Interactions 14 (2): 115–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Snidal, D. (1991) Relative gains and the pattern of international cooperation. American Political Science Review 85: 701–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Snyder, G. (1997) Alliance Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Trainor, B.E. (1988) Sharing the Defence Burden: Allies Are Listening. The New York Times, 6 September: B8.Google Scholar
  86. United States, Deparmment of Defense (2000) Report to Congress: Kosovo/Operation Allied Force after Action Report. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Defense.Google Scholar
  87. Walt, S.M. (1987) The Origins of Alliances. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Weber, M. and Shils, E. (1949) Max Weber on the Methodology of the Social Sciences, 1st edn. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.Google Scholar
  89. Williams, M. J. (2013) Enduring, but Irrelevant? Britain, NATO and the future of the Atlantic alliance. International Politics 50 (3): 360–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Winess, M. (1991) Report on NATO Calls on U.S. To Cut Its Forces by Two-Thirds. The New York Times, 2 March: 3.Google Scholar
  91. Wohlforth, W.C. (1993) The Elusive Balance: Power and Perceptions During the Cold War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Wolfers, A. (1962) Discord and Collaboration. Baltimore, MA: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Yost, D. (1998) The new NATO and collective security. Survival 40 (2): 135–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Zyla, B. (2009) NATO and post-cold war Burden-Sharing: Canada the laggard? International Journal 64 (2): 337–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Zyla, B. (2015) Sharing the Burden? NATO and Its Second-Tier Powers. Toronto; New York: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin Zyla
    • 1
  1. 1.School of International Development and Global Studies, University of OttawaOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations