European Political Science

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 341–357 | Cite as

Post-National Citizenship and Higher Education in the European Union

  • Chris Gifford
  • Susana Gonçalves
  • Elżbieta Wołodźko
  • Ákos Gocsal


This paper is concerned with the role of higher education institutions (HEIs) in constituting European post-national citizenships. The central argument is that the Europeanisation of rights, and the administrative regulation of higher education that follows from this, are limited as instruments for developing post-national citizenship as they reinforce and conceal social and cultural divisions. An individualist and organisational conception of citizenship is contrasted with the possibilities for a post-national citizenship enacted within HEIs considered as significant political actors within a broadly conceived European public sphere.


citizenship higher education european union 


  1. Act of 2005 on Higher Education. (2005) ‘Republic of Hungary’,,, accessed 5 October 2009.
  2. Ahmad, N., Watt, P., Lyle, C. and Dhami, R. (2006) Approaches, Resources and Barriers to Embedding Equal Opportunities in the Curriculum, Wolverhampton: Policy Research Unit, University of Wolverhampton.Google Scholar
  3. Ahmed, S. (2007) ‘You end up doing the document rather than doing the doing’: Diversity, race equality and the politics of documentation’, Ethnic and Racial Studies 30 (4): 590–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Banks, J.A. (2008) ‘Diversity, group identity, and citizenship education in a global age’, Educational Researcher 37 (3): 129–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brubaker, R. (1992) Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Calhoun, C. (2004) ‘The democratic integration of Europe’, Eurozine, 21 June,, accessed 7 January 2009.
  7. Davies, I. (2004) ‘Developing Education for Citizenship’, in A. Lockyer, B. Crick and J. Annette (eds.) Education for Democratic Citizenship Issues of Theory and Practice, Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 161–174.Google Scholar
  8. Delanty, G. (2000) Citizenship in a Global Age: Society, Culture and Politics, Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Delanty, G. (2007) ‘European citizenship: A critical assessment’, Citizenship Studies 11 (1): 63–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Devine, P.G., Plant, E.A. and Buswell, B.N. (2000) ‘Breaking the Prejudice Habit: Progress and Obstacles’, in S. Oskamp (ed.) Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 185–208.Google Scholar
  11. Dobson, L. (2006) Supranational Citizenship, Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Europa. (2009),, accessed 6 January 2009.
  13. Europa. (2010) ‘Secretariat-General of the European Commission,, accessed 15 April 2010’.Google Scholar
  14. European Union. (2002) ‘Tuning educational structures in Europe’,, accessed 4 April 2006.Google Scholar
  15. European Union. (2006) ‘Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning (2006/962/EC)’, Official Journal of the European Union L394: 10–18; 30 December.Google Scholar
  16. European Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA). (2007) ‘Report on racism and xenophobia in the Member States of the EU’,, accessed 12 June 2008.
  17. Field, J. (2002) ‘Citizenship, European enlargement and higher education: A critical perspective’, Paper presented at the Higher Education Reform Network, University of Leiden, 13–14 September.Google Scholar
  18. Fraser, N. (1997) Justice Interruptus: Critical Reflections on the ‘Postsocialist’ Condition, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Fraser, N. (2007) ‘Special section: Transnational public sphere: Transnationalizing the public sphere: On the legitimacy and efficacy of public opinion in a post-westphalian world’ 24 (4): 7–30.Google Scholar
  20. Galinsky, A.D. and Moskowitz, G.B. (2000) ‘Perspective-taking: Decreasing stereotype expression, stereotype accessibility and in-group favoritism’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 78 (4): 708–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gifford, C., Gocsal, A., Rado, B., Gonçalves, S. and Wołodźko, E. (2009) ‘Intercultural learning for European citizenship’, A guide produced by the ‘Competences for Multiculturality, Internationalism and Diversity’ Task Group with funding from European Commission’s Department of Education and Culture Socrates programme. Access at
  22. Gonçalves, S. (2008) ‘The role of internationalization in the promotion of intercultural competence’, Paper presented to the Tenth European Conference of Children's Identity and Citizenship in Europe (CiCe), European Thematic Network – ‘Reflecting On Identities: Research, Practice And Innovation’, Istanbul University, Turkey, 29–31 May.Google Scholar
  23. Greenberg, J., Solomon, S., Pyszcyzynski, T., Rosenblatt, A., Burling, J., Lyon, D., Simon, L. and Pinel, E. (1992) ‘Why do people need self-esteem? Converging evidence that self-esteem serves an anxiety-buffering function’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 63 (6): 913–922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grimshaw, T. (2008) ‘Negotiating an Identity in English: The Discursive Construction and Reconstruction of Chinese Students’, in Higher Education Academy Subject Centre for Social Policy and Social Work (SWAP) (ed.) University Life Uncovered, Making Sense of the Student Experience, Southampton: SWAP, pp. 56–65.Google Scholar
  25. Habermas, J. (1994) ‘Citizenship and national identity’, in B. van Steenbergen (ed.) The Condition of Citizenship, London: Sage, pp. 20–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Habermas, J. (1998) The Inclusion of the Other: Studies in Political Theory, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  27. Harrison, N. and Peacock, N. (2008) ‘Mindful or Mindless: Do UK Student Drinking Cultures and Stereotypes Undermine Intercultural Contact?’, in Higher Education Academy Subject Centre for Social Policy and Social Work (SWAP) (ed.) University Life Uncovered: Making Sense of the Student Experience, Southampton: SWAP, pp. 44–55.Google Scholar
  28. Hewstone, M., Rubin, M. and Willis, H. (2002) ‘Intergroup bias’, Annual Review of Psychology 53: 575–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hoffman, J. (2004) Citizenship: Beyond the State, London: Sage.Google Scholar
  30. Ioannidou, A. (2007) ‘A comparative analysis of new governance instruments in the transnational educational space: A shift to knowledge-based instruments?’ European Educational Research Journal 6 (4): 336–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kramer, R.M. (1999) ‘Trust and distrust in organizations: Emerging perspectives, enduring questions’, Annual Review of Psychology 50: 569–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Krzywosz-Rynkiewicz, B., Wołodźko, E. and Strzemecka-Kata, J. (2005) ‘Minorities in Poland’, Paper presented to the Seventh European Conference of Children's Identity and Citizenship in Europe (CiCe), European Thematic Network – ‘Teaching Citizenship’, Ljubljana.Google Scholar
  33. Krzywosz-Rynkiewicz, B., Wołodźko, E. and Strzemecka-Kata, J. (2006) ‘Multicultural education in Poland – Case studies of good practice’, Paper presented to the Eight European Conference of the Children's Identity and Citizenship in Europe (CiCe), European Thematic Network – ‘Citizenship Education: Europe and the World’, Riga.Google Scholar
  34. Kymlicka, W. (1995) Multicultural Citizenship, New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Macpherson, W. (1999) ‘The Stephen Lawrence inquiry’, London: The Stationery Office, Official Documents,, accessed 4 January 2009.
  36. Marshall, T.H. (ed.) (1950[1963]) ‘Citizenship and Social Class’, in his Sociology at the Crossroads and Other Essays, London: Heinemann, pp. 3–51.Google Scholar
  37. Meehan, E. (1993) Citizenship and the European Community, London: Sage.Google Scholar
  38. OPSI (2010) Office of Public Sector Information,, accessed 16 April 2010.
  39. Papatsiba, V. (2006) ‘Making Higher Education more European through student mobility? Revitalising initiatives in the context of the Bologna Proess’, Comparative Education 42 (1): 93–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pettigrew, T.F. (1998) ‘Applying social psychology to international social issues’, Journal of Social Issues 54 (1): 663–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pilkington, A. (2004) ‘Addressing institutional racism: Comparing the response of the police and university in Midshire to the Macpherson Report’, Learning and Teaching in the Social Sciences 1 (2): 107–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Roche, M. (1992) Rethinking Citizenship: Welfare, Ideology and Change in Modern Society, Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  43. Stewart, A. (1995) ‘Two conceptions of citizenship’, British Journal of Sociology 46 (1): 63–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Szarka, J. (2003) ‘Student mobility in the EU’, European Integration Studies 2 (2): 123–138.Google Scholar
  45. Taylor, C. (1994) ‘The politics of recognition’, in A. Gutmann (ed.) Multiculturalism, Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 25–73.Google Scholar
  46. Wright, S. (2004) ‘Markets, corporations, consumers? New landscapes in higher education?’ Learning and Teaching in the Social Sciences 1 (2): 71–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yegen, M. (2008) ‘The dialectic and the tragedy of citizenship’, European Political Science 7 (1): 98–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Young, I.M. (1994) ‘Polity and group difference: A critique of the ideal of universal citizenship’, in B.S. Turner and P. Hamilton (eds.) Citizenship: Critical Concepts, Vol. 2, London: Routledge, pp. 386–408.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© European Consortium for Political Research 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chris Gifford
    • 1
  • Susana Gonçalves
    • 2
  • Elżbieta Wołodźko
    • 3
  • Ákos Gocsal
    • 4
  1. 1.University of Huddersfield, Queensgate CampusHuddersfieldUK
  2. 2.Polytechic Institute of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  3. 3.University of Warmia and MazuryOlsztynPoland
  4. 4.University of PecsPécsHungary

Personalised recommendations