The European Journal of Development Research

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 175–183 | Cite as

Hybrid Governance Arrangements

Original Article


In this article we address a recent tendency in development policies to engage actors beyond the nation-state, such as corporations, NGOs and other less formalized and local authorities. Many scholars have started questioning, at both the empirical and analytical level, the distinction between state and non-state actors, especially in the context of the governance of natural resources and security. Here, drawing from our case studies in Kingston (Jamaica) and Nairobi (Kenya), where security is provided, respectively, by gangs and by a residents’ policing organization, we attempt to understand the mutual entanglement of these actors through the concept of hybrid governance arrangements. We suggest that the added value of the hybridity approach lies exactly in the blurring of lines between the different actors involved.


hybrid governance security gangs community policing Kingston Nairobi 


Dans cet article, on aborde une question récente dans les politiques en matière de développement, c’est à dire l’engagement de ces politiques avec des acteurs au-delà des états-nations, tels que les sociétés, les ONG, et d’autres autorités locales moins formalisées. Les chercheurs en développement mettent en cause la distinction (empirique et analytique) entre l’état et d’autres acteurs hors de l’état dans les procès de gouvernance, en plusieurs matières et régions. A travers de deux études, l’un a Kingston (Jamaïque) et l’autre à Nairobi (Kenya), où les services de sécurité sont fournis respectivement par des bandes et par une association de résidents en charge de l’ordre, nous cherchons à comprendre le enchevêtrement de ces acteurs à travers le concept des ‘dispositions de gouvernance hybrides’. On suggère que la valeur ajoutée de cet approche hybride est tout à fait due au brouillage des démarcations entre les acteurs y impliqués.


  1. Albrecht, P. and Moe, L.W. (2015) The simultaneity of authority in hybrid orders. Peacebuilding 3 (1): 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boege, V., Brown, M.A., Clements, K.P. and Nolan, A. (2009) On hybrid political orders and emerging states: What is failing – States in the global South or research and politics in the West? Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation Dialogue Series 8: 15–35.Google Scholar
  3. Charles, C.A. and Beckford, O. (2012) The informal justice system in garrison constituencies. Social and Economic Studies 61 (2): 51–72.Google Scholar
  4. Goodfellow, T. and Lindemann, S. (2013) The clash of institutions: Traditional authority, conflict and the failure of ‘hybridity’ in Buganda. Commonwealth & Comparative Politics 51 (1): 3–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hendrikse, R.P. and Sidaway, J. (2010) Neoliberalism 3.0. Environment and Planning A 42 (9): 2037–2042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jaffe, R. (2012) Criminal dons and extralegal security privatization in downtown Kingston, Jamaica. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 33 (2): 184–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jaffe, R. (2013) The hybrid state: Crime and citizenship in urban Jamaica. American Ethnologist 40 (4): 734–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lemos, M.C. and Agrawal, A. (2006) Environmental governance. Annual Review of Environmental Resources 31: 297–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lund, C. (2006) Twilight institutions: An introduction. Development and Change 37 (4): 673–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. McElwee, P.D. (2012) Payments for environmental services as neoliberal market-based forest conservation in Vietnam: Panacea or problem? Geoforum 43 (3): 412–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Meagher, K. (2007) Hijacking civil society: The inside story of the Bakassi boys vigilante group of south-eastern Nigeria. The Journal of Modern African Studies 45 (1): 89–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Meagher, K. (2012) The strength of weak states? Non-state security forces and hybrid governance in Africa. Development and Change 43 (5): 1073–1101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Meagher, K., De Herdt, T. and Titeca, K. (2014) Unravelling public authority: Paths of hybrid governance in Africa. Wageningen: IS Academy Research Brief No. 10.Google Scholar
  14. Meikle, T. and Jaffe, R. (2015) ‘Police as the new don’? An assessment of post-Dudus policing strategies in Jamaica. Caribbean Journal of Criminology 1 (2): 75–100.Google Scholar
  15. Menkhaus, K. (2007) Governance without government in Somalia. International Security 31 (3): 74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Menkhaus, K. (2008) The rise of a mediated state in northern Kenya: The Wajir story and its implications for state-building. Afrika Focus 21 (2): 23–38.Google Scholar
  17. O’Reilly, K. and Dhanju, R. (2012) Hybrid drinking water governance: Community participation and ongoing neoliberal reforms in rural Rajasthan, India. Geoforum 43 (3): 623–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Peck, J. and Tickell, A. (2002) Neoliberalizing space. Antipode 34 (3): 380–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Reid, T. (2010) UDC Admits Dudus-linked company still on its payroll. Jamaica Gleaner 5 July,, accessed 17 December 2015.
  20. Stepputat, F. (2013) Contemporary governscapes: Sovereign practice and hybrid orders beyond the center. In: M. Bouziane, C. Harders and A. Hoffmann (eds.) Local Politics and Contemporary Transformation in the Arab World: Governance Beyond the Center. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 25–42.Google Scholar
  21. Tilly, C. (1985) War making and state making as organized crime. In: P.B. Evans, D. Rueschemeyer and T. Skochpol (eds.) Bringing the State Back In. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 169–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Weintraub, J. (1997) The theory and politics of the public private distinction. In: J. Weintraub and K. Kumar (eds.) Public and Private in Thought and Practice: Perspectives on a Grand Dichotomy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 1–42.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations