Eastern Economic Journal

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 69–83 | Cite as

Bringing the Effects of Occupational Licensing into Focus: Optician Licensing in the United States

  • Edward J Timmons
  • Anna Mills
Original Article


The labor market institution of occupational licensing continues to grow in scope in the United States and abroad. In this paper, we estimate the effects of occupational licensing on opticians using data from the US Census and American Community Survey. Our results suggest that optician licensing is associated with opticians receiving as much as 16.9 percent more in annual earnings. In an examination of malpractice insurance premiums in all states and participation rates in optician certification programs in Texas, we find little evidence that optician licensing has enhanced the quality of services delivered to consumers. By and large, optician licensing appears to be reducing consumer welfare by raising the earnings of opticians without enhancing the quality of services delivered to consumers.


occupational licensing occupational regulation 


J44 I18 


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Copyright information

© EEA 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Business Administration, Saint Francis UniversityLorettoUSA
  2. 2.Mercatus Center at George Mason UniversityArlingtonUSA

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