Advertisement

Corporate Reputation Review

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 80–94 | Cite as

Antecedents of Nation Brand Personality

  • Young-A Song
  • Yongjun Sung
Original Article

Abstract

Given the increasing popularity of nation branding across the globe, brand management at the symbolic level is a critical component of a nation's brand management program. By surveying a US sample of 304 college students, the current study identified a total of five primary antecedents of nation brand personality: government competences, people/events, natural features, pop culture and arts/history. The results also show that government competences, natural features, and pop culture are crucial antecedents in nation branding; they increase chances of a positive nation brand personality dimension (eg, agreeableness, assiduousness) or decrease the possibility of a negative dimension (eg, snobbism).

Keywords

brand personality nation brand personality nation branding nation image 

References

  1. Aaker, D.A. (1996) Building Strong Brands, The Free Press, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Aaker, J.L. (1997) ‘Dimensions of brand personality’, Journal of Marketing Research, 34 (3), 347–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aaker, J.L., Benet-Martinez, V. and Garolera, J. (2001) ‘Consumption symbols as carriers of culture: A study of Japanese and Spanish brand personality constructs’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81 (3), 492–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ang, S.H. and Lim, E. (2006) ‘The influence of metaphors and product type on brand personality perceptions and attitudes’, Journal of Advertising, 35 (2), 39–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anholt, S. (2002) ‘Nation branding: A continuing theme’, Journal of Brand Management, 10 (1), 50–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anholt, S. (2007) Competitive Identity – The New Brand Management for Nations, Cities and Regions, Palgrave Macmillan, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  7. Anholt, S. (2009) ‘Branding places and nations’, in R. Clifton and J. Simmons (eds.) Brands and Branding, Bloomberg Press, New Jersey, pp. 206–216.Google Scholar
  8. Austin, J., Siguaw, J. and Mattila, A. (2003) ‘A re-examination of the generalizability of the Aaker brand personality measurement framework’, Journal of Strategic Marketing, 11 (2), 77–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baloglu, S. and McCleary, K.W. (1999) ‘A model of destination image formation’, Annals of Tourism Research, 26 (4), 868–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beerli, A. and Martin, J.D. (2004) ‘Factors influencing destination image’, Annals of Tourism Research, 31 (3), 657–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Biel, A.L. (1993) ‘Converging image into equity’, in D.A. Aaker and A.L. Biel (eds.) Brand Equity and Advertising – Advertising's Role in Building Strong Brands, Lawrence Erlbaum Association, New Jersey, pp. 67–82.Google Scholar
  12. Bigné, J.E., Sánchez, M.I. and Sánchez, J. (2001) ‘Tourism image, evaluation variables and after purchase behavior: Interrelationship’, Tourism Management, 22 (6), 607–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burst Media (2007) Looking to Reach College Students – Look Online, Burst Media, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  14. Buttle, F. (2008) ‘A CRM perspective on nation branding’, in K. Dinnie (ed.) Nation Branding: Concepts, Issues, Practices, Butterworth-Heinemann, Burlington, MA, pp. 66–74.Google Scholar
  15. Caldwell, N. and Freire, J.R. (2004) ‘The differences between branding a country, a region, and a city: Applying the brand box model’, Journal of Brand Management, 12 (1), 50–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Caprara, G.V., Barbaranelli, C. and Guido, G. (2001) ‘Brand personality: How to make the metaphor fit?’ Journal of Economic Psychology, 22 (3), 377–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chang, P. and Chieng, M. (2006) ‘Building consumer-brand relationship: A cross-cultural experiential view’, Psychology & Marketing, 23 (11), 927–959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chu, S. and Sung, Y. (2010) ‘Brand personality dimensions in China’, Journal of Marketing Communications 17 (3), 163–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. d'Astous, A. and Boujbel, L. (2007) ‘Positioning countries on personality dimensions: Scale development and implications for country marketing’, Journal of Business Research, 60 (3), 231–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dinnie, K. (2004) ‘Place branding: Overview of an emerging literature’, Place Branding, 2004 (1), 106–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dinnie, K. (2008) Nation Branding – Concepts, Issues, Practice, Butterworth-Heinemann, Burlington, MA.Google Scholar
  22. Ekinci, Y. and Hosany, S. (2006) ‘Destination personality: An application of brand personality to tourism destinations’, Journal of Travel Research, 45 (November), 127–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Encyclopædia Britannica (2010) ‘French revolution’, EncyclopædiaBritannicaOnline, 17 April http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/219315/French-Revolution, assessed 17 April, 2010.
  24. Gartner, W. (1993) ‘Image formation process’, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 2 (3), 191–212.Google Scholar
  25. GfK Roper Public Affairs & Media (2009) TheAnholt-GfK Roper Nation Brands IndexSM 2009 Report, GfK Roper Public Affairs & Media, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  26. Gilmore, F. (2002) ‘A country – Can it be repositioned? Spain – The success story of country branding’, Journal of Brand Management, 9 (4–5), 281–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hanna, S. and Rowley, J. (2007) ‘An analysis of terminology use in place branding’, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 4 (1), 61–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hosany, S., Ekinci, Y. and Uysal, M. (2006) ‘Destination image and destination personality: An application of branding theories to tourism places’, Journal of Business Research, 59 (5), 638–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Johnston, Y. (2008) ‘Developing brand South Africa’, in K. Dinnie (ed.) Nation Branding: Concepts, Issues, Practice, Butterworth-Heinemann, Burlington, pp. 5–13.Google Scholar
  30. Jones, S. (2002) The Internet Goes to College: How Students Are Living in the Future with Today's Technology, Pew Internet & American Life Project, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  31. Kaplan, M.D., Yurt, O., Guneri, B. and Kurtulus, K. (2010) ‘Branding places: Applying brand personality concept to cities’, European Journal of Marketing, 44 (9/10), 1286–1304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kavaratzis, M. (2005) ‘Place branding: A review of trends and conceptual models’, The Marketing Review, 5 (4), 329–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Keller, K.L. (1993) ‘Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity’, Journal of Marketing, 57 (1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kim, C.K., Han, D. and Park, S.B. (2001) ‘The effect of brand personality and brand identification on brand loyalty: Applying the theory of social identification’, Japanese Psychological Research, 43 (4), 195–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kotler, P., Hider, D.H. and Rein, I. (1993) Marketing Places: Attracting Investment, Industry, and Tourism to Cities, States, and Nations, Free Press, New York.Google Scholar
  36. Kotler, P. and Gertner, D. (2002) ‘Country as brand, product, and beyond: A place marketing and brand management perspective’, Journal of Brand Management, 9 (4–5), 249–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kowert, P.A. and Hermann, M.G. (1997) ‘Who takes risks? Daring and caution in foreign policy making’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 41 (5), 611–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lau, K.C. and Phau, I. (2007) ‘Extending symbolic brands using their personality: Examining antecedents and implications towards brand image fit and brand dilution’, Psychology & Marketing, 24 (5), 421–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lodge, C. (2002) ‘Success and failure: The brand stories of two countries’, Brand Management, 9 (4–5), 372–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Martin, I.M. and Eroglu, S. (1993) ‘Measuring a multi-dimensional construct: Country image’, Journal of Business Research, 28 (3), 191–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Murphy, L., Moscardo, G. and Benckendorff, P. (2007) ‘Using brand personality to differentiate regional tourism destinations’, Journal of Travel Research, 46 (5), 5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Olins, W. (2002) ‘Branding the nation – The historical context’, Journal of Brand Management, 9 (4–5), 241–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Okazaki, S. (2005) ‘Excitement or sophistication? A preliminary exploration of online brand personality’, International Marketing Review, 23 (3), 279–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Papadopoulos, N. and Heslop, L. (2002) ‘Country equity and country branding: Problems and prospects’, Journal of Brand Management, 9 (4–5), 294–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Plummer, J.T. (1984) ‘How personality makes a difference’, Journal of Advertising Research, 24 (6), 27–31.Google Scholar
  46. Rainisto, S.K. (2003) ‘Success factors of place marketing: A study of place marketing practices in northern Europe and the United States’, MS thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland.Google Scholar
  47. Rojas-Méndez, J., Erenchun-Podlech, I. and Silva-Olave, E. (2004) ‘The ford brand personality in Chile’, Corporate Reputational Review, 7 (3), 232–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shank, M.D. and Langmeyer, L. (1994) ‘Does personality influence brand image?’ Journal of Psychology, 128 (2), 157–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Siguaw, J.A., Mattila, A. and Austin, J.R. (1999) ‘The brand-personality scale: An application for restaurants’, Cornell Hotel & Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 40 (3), 48–56.Google Scholar
  50. Sirgy, J. (1982) ‘Self-concept in consumer behavior: A critical review’, Journal of Consumer Research, 9 (3), 287–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Skinner, H. and Kubacki, K. (2007) ‘Unravelling the complex relationship between nationhood, national and cultural identity, and place branding’, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 3 (4), 305–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sung, Y. and Kim, J. (2010) ‘Effects of brand personality on brand trust and brand affect’, Psychology & Marketing, 27 (7), 639–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sung, Y. and Tinkham, S.F. (2005) ‘Brand personality structures in the United States and Korea: Common and culture-specific factors’, Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15 (4), 334–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Usakli, A. and Baloglu, S. (2011) ‘Brand personality of tourist destinations: An application of self-congruity theory’, Tourism Management, 32 (1), 114–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Young-A Song
    • 1
  • Yongjun Sung
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AdvertisingUniversity of Texas at AustinAustinUSA
  2. 2.Temerlin Advertising Institute, Southern Methodist UniversityDallasUSA

Personalised recommendations