Surviving in the shadows of war: Polyvictimised children in post-conflict Angola
- 15 Downloads
This article reports on findings from a preliminary study that aims to ascertain the extent to which a group of 30 15–17-year-old Angolan juvenile suspects are polyvictims, as defined by Finkelhor and colleagues, and the degree to which their victimisation might be attributed to the aftermath of the country’s civil war. Analysis of their victimisation identified the majority as being polyvictims. Research into the context of victimisation revealed their neighbourhoods as being of primary importance. Findings confirm a direct link between these children’s victimisation and Angola’s war history. The article concludes that Angolan authorities need to adopt a psychosocial approach to dealing with the traumatic experiences of these children and their social development.
Keywordspolyvictimisation Angola neighbourhoods psychosocial approaches trauma
- Alemika, E. (2010) National Criminal Victimization and Safety Survey, 2009: Summary of Findings. Lagos, Nigeria: CLEEN Foundation.Google Scholar
- Chikwanha, A.B., Gninanfon, A. and Wantchekon, L. (eds) (2008) A Survey of Crime Victims in Benin. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.Google Scholar
- Christian Children’s Fund (2002) Peace in Angola brings critical needs, 11 July, http://www.christianchildrensfund.org/emergencies/Angola_peace, accessed 1 August 2012.
- Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers (2004a) Child soldier use 2003: A briefing for the 4th UN Security Council open debate on children and armed conflict, London, http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4988067bc.html, accessed 1 August 2012.
- Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers (2004b) Child Soldiers Global Report 2004 – Angola http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4988067bc.html, accessed 1 August 2012.
- De Boeck, F. and Honwana, A. (eds.) (2005) Makers and Breakers: Children and Youth in Postcolonial Africa. Oxford and Dakar: James Currey and CODESRIA.Google Scholar
- Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Ormrod, R., Hamby, S. and Kracke, K. (2009a) Children’s Exposure to Violence: A Comprehensive National Survey. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), Juvenile Justice Bulletin. October. US Department of Justice, Washington DC.Google Scholar
- Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Ormrod, R., Hamby, S. and Ormrod, R. (2011b) Polyvictimization: Children’s Exposure to Multiple Types of Violence, Crime, and Abuse Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. October. US Department of Justice. Washington DC.Google Scholar
- Human Rights Watch (1996) Children in Combat, Human Rights Watch Children’s Rights Project, Vol. 18 No. 1(G). January.Google Scholar
- Human Rights Watch (2001) Easy Targets: Violence against Children Worldwide. New York: Human Rights Watch.Google Scholar
- Human Rights Watch (2002) United Nations: Protect the displaced in Angola, Human Rights Watch Press Release, 5 March, http://www.hrw.org/news/2002/03/04/united-nations-protect-displaced-angola, accessed 3 August 2012.
- Human Rights Watch (2003) Forgotten Fighters: Child Soldiers in Angola. Human Rights Watch Press Release, Vol. 15, No. 10 (A) – April. New York.Google Scholar
- Human Rights Watch (2007) Paying the Price: Violations of the Rights of Children in Detention in Burundi. Human Rights Watch Press, Vol. 19, No. 4(a), March. New York.Google Scholar
- Human Rights Watch (2012) No Place for Children: Child Recruitment, Forced Marriage, and Attacks on Schools in Somalia. New York: Human Rights Watch.Google Scholar
- Integrated Regional Information Networks (In-depth) (IRIN) (2007) Youth in Crisis: Coming of Age in the 21st Century. Nairobi: IRIN.Google Scholar
- NGO Advisory Council for Follow-up to the UN Study on Violence against Children (2011) Five Years on: A Global Update on Violence against Children. Geneva, Switzerland: The NGO Advisory Council.Google Scholar
- Rodrigues, C.U. (2010) Youth in Angola: Keeping the pace towards modernity, Cadernos de Estudos Africanos [Online], 18/19: 165–179, http://cea.revues.org/116, accessed 1 August 2012.
- Turner, H., Sherry Hamby, S. and Banyard, V. (2013) Poly-victimization: Childhood exposure to multiple forms of victimization. National Children’s Advocacy Center, http://www.nationalcac.org/images/pdfs/CALiO/poly-victimization%20-%20childhood-exposure-to-multiple-%20forms-victimization.pdf, accessed 13 May 2013.
- UNICEF UK (1989) The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. London: UNICEF.Google Scholar
- UNICEF (2006) At a glance: Sierra Leone, http://www.unicef.org/index.php, accessed 1 August 2012.
- United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2009) Victimisation Survey in Rwanda: Executive Summary. Vienna, Austria: UNODC.Google Scholar
- Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children (WCRWC) (2000) Untapped Potential: Adolescents Affected by Armed Conflict. A Review of Programs and Policies. New York: Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children.Google Scholar
- Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children (WCRWC) (2001) Against All Odds: Surviving the War on Adolescents – Promoting the Protection and Capacity of Ugandan and Sudanese Adolescents in Northern Uganda. Participatory Research Study with Adolescents in Northern Uganda. New York: WCRWC.Google Scholar
- World Bank (2003) Angola: Emergency Demobilization and Reintegration Project, February Report No. PID 11534, February, http://www.worldbank.org, accessed 1 August 2012.