Improving problem-oriented policing: The need for a new model?
- 385 Downloads
Problem-oriented policing is widely advocated in both the United States and United Kingdom. Evidence suggests it is an effective means of tackling substantive crime and disorder problems. Despite its appeal, recurrent difficulties have been encountered trying to implement and mainstream the problem-oriented approach. Several problem-solving models have been developed to translate the basic concept of problem orientation into routine practices. This article reports the findings of an exploratory study which sought to review the dominant problem-solving models used by police and partnership agencies in Britain. Using data gathered from a convenience sample of 203 practitioners, we examine the extent to which each model is used and chart their respective strengths and weaknesses. We finish with a discussion of the implications of the findings drawing on research from other problem-solving domains, and offer some potential avenues for further improving problem-oriented work.
Keywordscrime prevention problem-oriented policing problem solving SARA
This research was funded by the Home Office. We thank Alex Birtwistle, John Chadwick and Darren Kristiansen for their continued help throughout this project. We also thank Karen Bullock, John Eck, Peter Guillaume, Neil Henson, Johannes Knutsson, Gloria Laycock, Mike Scott and two anonymous reviewers for commenting on earlier drafts of this article.
- Bullock, K. (2007) Lost in translation: An examination of the implementation of problem-oriented policing. Unpublished PhD thesis, University College London.Google Scholar
- Bullock, K., Erol, R. and Tilley, N. (2006) Problem-oriented Policing and Partnerships: Implementing an Evidence-based Approach to Crime Reduction. Cullompton, Devon: Willan.Google Scholar
- Bullock, K. and Tilley, N. (2009) Born to fail? Policing, reform and neighbourhood problem solving. Policing: Journal of Policy and Practice 82 (2): 117.Google Scholar
- Clarke, R.V. and Eck, J.E. (2005) Become a Problem-Solving Crime Analyst in 55 Small Steps. Cullompton, Devon: Willan.Google Scholar
- Clarke, R.V. and Goldstein, H. (2003) Reducing Thefts at Construction Sites: Lessons from a Problem-oriented Project. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.Google Scholar
- Deming, W.E. (2000) Out of the Crisis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Eck, J.E. and Spelman, W. (1987) Problem-solving: Problem-oriented Policing in Newport News. Washington DC: Police Executive Research Forum.Google Scholar
- Ekblom, P. (1999) Can we make crime prevention adaptive by learning from other evolutionary struggles? Studies on Crime and Crime Prevention 8 (1): 27–51.Google Scholar
- Ekblom, P. (2005) The 5Is framework: Sharing good practice in crime prevention. In: E. Marks, A. Meyer and R. Linssen (eds.) Quality in Crime Prevention. Hanover: Landespraventionsrat Niedersachen, pp. 55–84.Google Scholar
- Ekblom, P. (2007) Appropriate complexity: Capturing and structuring knowledge from impact and process evaluations of crime reduction, community safety and problem-oriented policing. In: E. Hogard, R. Ellis and J. Warren (eds.) Community Safety: Innovation and Evaluation. Chester, UK: Chester Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Forrester, D., Chatterton, C. and Pease, K. (1988) The Kirkholt Burglary Prevention Project, Rochdale. Crime Prevention Unit Paper 13. London, UK: Home Office.Google Scholar
- Kennedy, D.M., Braga, A.A., Piehl, A.M. and Waring, E.J. (2001) Reducing Gun Violence: The Boston Gun Project's Operation Ceasefire. Washington DC: National Institute of Justice US Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs.Google Scholar
- Knutsson, J. (2009) Standard of evaluations in problem-oriented policing projects: Good enough? In: J. Knutsson and N. Tilley (eds.) Evaluating Crime Reduction Initiatives, Crime Prevention Studies, Vol. 24. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press, pp. 7–28.Google Scholar
- Knutsson, J. and Clarke, R.V. (2006) Putting Theory to Work: Implementing Situational Prevention and Problem-oriented Policing, Crime Prevention Studies, Vol. 20. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.Google Scholar
- Read, T. and Tilley, N. (2000) Not Rocket Science: Problem-solving and Crime Reduction, Crime Reduction Research Series 6. London: Home Office.Google Scholar
- Royce, W. (1970) Managing the development of large software systems. Proceedings, IEEE WESCON, pp.1–9, http://www.cs.umd.edu/class/spring2003/cmsc838p/Process/waterfall.pdf.
- Scott, M.S. (2000) Problem-oriented Policing: Reflections of the First Twenty Years. Washington DC: Department of Justice Office of Community-Oriented Policing Services.Google Scholar
- Scott, M.S. (2006) Implementing crime prevention: Lessons learned from problem-oriented policing projects. In: J. Knutsson and R. Clarke (eds.) Putting Theory to Work: Implementing Situational Prevention and Problem-oriented Policing, Crime Prevention Studies, Vol. 20. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press, pp. 9–36.Google Scholar
- Scott, M.S. (2008) Progress in American policing? Reviewing the national reviews. Law & Social Inquiry 34 (1): 171–185.Google Scholar