The ex-Soviet republics of Central Asia have instituted some economic reforms within their authoritarian political systems, including reliance on worldwide exports of their energy, mineral, and agricultural products, and select imports. Besides relatively poor and aid-dependent Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, all have now recovered their pre-independence levels of income and begun to grow at respectable rates. The petro-dependent states of Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan have grown fastest lately but show signs of corruption and ‘Dutch disease’. Like independence-minded Uzbekistan, all try to derive benefits from surrounding great powers and international financial institutions without giving up their freedom of action.
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Spechler, M. The Economies of Central Asia: A Survey. Comp Econ Stud 50, 30–52 (2008) doi:10.1057/ces.2008.3
- Central Asia
- economic reform