Advertisement

Journal of Brand Management

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 38–59 | Cite as

Building self-brand connections: Exploring brand stories through a transmedia perspective

  • Neil Granitz
  • Howard FormanEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Consumers interpret their experiences with brands via narrative processing; thus the brand story has emerged as a major marketing construct. Transmedia storytelling occurs when the story elements are dispersed across multiple media, each making a unique contribution to the whole. As brand stories can create connections between the consumer and the brand, delivering transmedia brand stories may strengthen the bond, leading to positive attitudes, more entry points and higher purchase intent. Past research on brand stories has not addressed the types of brand stories that consumers know and desire to hear, and the media in which they prefer to find these stories. The present research answers these questions and positions the findings in the context of creating transmedia stories. Qualitative interviews revealed that consumers know and wish to hear stories about the brand’s history, product reliability, philanthropy and users’ personal stories. Other findings indicate that consumers with stronger brand connections prefer stories focused on the brand’s experiential value and will access this through interactive media. Consumers with weaker brand attachments prefer stories about the utilitarian dimensions of the brand, told through more traditional media. Practical recommendations focus on creating consumer-brand connections through different types of stories and media.

Keywords

brand stories self-brand connections transmedia storytelling 

References

  1. Anderson, J.R. (1983) Language, Memory, and Thought. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  2. Arsel, Z. and Bean, J. (2013) Taste regimes and market mediated practice. Journal of Consumer Research 39 (5): 899–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Askwith, I. (2007) Television 2.0: Reconceptualizing TV as an engagement medium. Master’s dissertation, Comparative Media Studies, MIT. http://cms.mit.edu/research/theses/IvanAskwith2007.pdf, accessed 20 January 2009.
  4. Berger, J. and Milkman, K.L. (2012) What makes online content viral? Journal of Marketing Research 49 (2): 192–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bettman, J.R. (1979) An Information Processing Theory of Consumer Choice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  6. Bettman, J.R. and Sujan, M. (1987) Effects of framing on evaluation of comparable and noncomparable alternatives by expert and novice consumers. Journal of Consumer Research 14 (September): 141–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beverland, M. (2006) The ‘real thing’: Brand authenticity in the luxury wine trade. Journal of Business Research 59 (2): 251–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blankson, C. and Kalafatis, S. (2004) The development and validation of a scale measuring consumer/customer derived generic typology of positioning strategies. Journal of Marketing Management 20 (1): 5–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blomback, A. and Brunninge, O. (2009) Corporate identity manifested through historical references. Corporate Communications: An International Journal 14 (4): 404–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bock, G., Zmud, R.W., Young-Gul, K. and Lee, J. (2005) Behavioral intention formation in knowledge sharing: Examining the roles of extrinsic motivators, social-psychological forces, and organizational climate. MIS Quarterly Special Issue on Information Technologies and Knowledge Management 29 (1): 87–111.Google Scholar
  11. Bricken, R. (2013) Amazon is going to start selling fan fiction-legal fan fiction, IO9. http://io9.com/amazon-is-going-to-start-selling-fan-fiction-legal-fa-509364648, accessed 9 November 2014.
  12. Brown, S., Kozinets, R.V. and Sherry, J.F. (2003) Teaching old brands new tricks: Retro branding and the revival of brand meaning. Journal of Marketing 67 (3): 19–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bruner, J. (1990) Acts of Meaning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Carmichael, M. (2011) Who’s using what media and when, Advertising Age Blogs. http://adage.com/article/adagestat/infographic-generational-media-usage-time-day/229831/, accessed 9 September 2014.
  15. Carroll, A., Barnes, S.J., Scornavacca, E. and Fletcher, K. (2007) Consumer perceptions and attitudes towards SMS advertising: Recent evidence from New Zealand. International Journal of Advertising 26 (1): 79–98.Google Scholar
  16. Chen, S. and Granitz, N. (2012) Adoption, rejection or convergence: Consumer attitudes toward book digitization. Journal of Business Research 65 (8): 1219–1225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chitturi, R., Raghunathan, R. and Mahajan, V. (2007) Form versus function: How the intensities of specific emotions evoked in functional versus hedonic trade-offs mediate product preferences. Journal of Marketing Research 44 (November): 702–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Churchill, G.A. (1996) Basic Marketing Research, 3rd edn. Orlando, FL: Dryden.Google Scholar
  19. Cooper, H., Schembri, S. and Miller, D. (2010) Brand self-identity narratives in the James Bond movie. Psychology & Marketing 27 (6): 557–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dacin, P.A. and Smith, D.C. (1994) The effect of brand portfolio characteristics on consumer evaluations of brand extensions. Journal of Marketing Research 31 (2): 229–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Davis, C.H. (2013) Audience value and transmedia products. In: T. Storsul and A. Krumsvik (eds.) media innovations. Gothenburg, Sweden: Nordicom, pp. 175–190.Google Scholar
  22. Davis, K. and Blomstrom, R.L. (1975) Business and Society: Environment and Responsibility. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  23. DelVecchio, D. (2000) Moving beyond fit: The role of brand portfolio characteristics in consumer evaluations of brand reliability. Journal of Product and Brand Management 9 (7): 457–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dena, C. (2008) Emerging participatory culture practices: Player-created tiers in alternate reality games. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies 14 (1): 41–57.Google Scholar
  25. Dena, C. (2009) Transmedia practice: Theorising the practice of expressing a fictional world across distinct media and environments. Doctoral dissertation, University of Sydney.Google Scholar
  26. Desai, K.K. and Keller, K.L. (2002) The effects of ingredient branding strategies on host brand extendibility. Journal of Marketing 66 (1): 73–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. de Vries, L., Gensler, S. and Leeflang, S.H. (2012) Popularity of brand posts on brand fan pages: An investigation of the effects of social media marketing. Journal of Interactive Marketing 26 (2): 83–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dhar, R. and Wertenbroch, K. (2000) Consumer choice between hedonic and utilitarian goods. Journal of Marketing Research 37 (February): 60–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dhillon, B.S. (1999) Engineering Maintainability: How to Design for Reliability and Easy Maintenance. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing.Google Scholar
  30. Diamond, N., Sherry, J.F., Muniz, A.M. Jr., McGrath, M., Kozinets, R.V. and Borghini, S. (2009) American girl and the brand gestalt: Closing the loop on sociocultural branding research. Journal of Marketing 72 (3): 118–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dickson, P.R. and Ginter, J.L. (1987) Market segmentation, product differentiation, and marketing strategy. Journal of Marketing 51 (2): 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Digles, J. (2011) Marketing to millenials in the era of transmedia storytelling: What we’ve learned about influence and reverberation amid the evolution of social media and ireporters. Presentation to the Chicago Chapter of the International Association of Business Communication.Google Scholar
  33. Erickson, F. (1986) Qualitative methods in research on teaching. In: M. Wittrock (ed.) handbook of research on teaching. New York: Macmillan, pp. 119–161.Google Scholar
  34. Escalas, J.E. (2004) Narrative processing: Building consumer connections to brands. Journal of Consumer Psychology 14 (1/2): 168–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Escalas, J.E. and Bettman, J.R. (2003) You are what they eat: The influence of reference groups on consumer connections to brands. Journal of Consumer Psychology 13 (3): 339–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Faranda, W.T. and Clarke III I. (2004) Student observations of outstanding teaching: Implications for marketing educators. Journal of Marketing Education 26 (3): 271–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fiske, S.T. (1982) Schema-triggered affect: Applications to social perception. In: Clark, M. and Fiske, S. Affect and Cognition: The 17th Annual Carnegie Symposium on Cognition, pp. 55–78, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  38. Fleck, N., Michel, G. and Zeitoun, V. (2014) Brand personification through the use of spokespeople: An exploratory study of ordinary employees, CEOs and celebrities featured in advertising. Psychology & Marketing 31 (1): 84–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fournier, S. (1998) Consumers and their brands: Developing relationship theory in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research 70 (1): 50–64.Google Scholar
  40. Garbarino, E. and Johnson, M.S. (1999) The different roles of satisfaction, trust, and commitment in customer relationships. Journal of Marketing 63 (2): 70–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gensler, S., Volckner, F., Liu-Thompkins, Y. and Wiertz, C. (2013) Managing brands in the social media environment. Journal of Interactive Marketing 27 (4): 242–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Glaser, B. and Strauss, A. (1967) The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Goh, K., Heng, C. and Lin, Z. (2013) Social media brand community and consumer behavior: Quantifying the relative impact of user- and marketer-generated content. Information Systems Research 24 (1): 108–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gorry, G.A. and Westbrook, R.A. (2011) Can you hear me now? Learning from customer stories. Business Horizons 54 (6): 575–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Grandio, M. and Bonaut, J. (2012) Transmedia audiences and television fiction: A comparative approach between skins (UK) and El Barco (Spain). Participations 9 (2): 558.Google Scholar
  46. Grover, R. (2009) ‘Giving products a back story,’ BusinessWeek 18 May. http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/09_21/b4132048821605.htm, accessed 20 October 2014.
  47. Hadas, L. (2014) Authorship and authenticity in the transmedia brand: The case of Marvel’s Agents of Shield, Networking Knowledge 7(1): 332-446.Google Scholar
  48. Harrington, C.L. and Bielby, D.D. (2007) Global fandom/global fan studies. In: J. Gray, C. Sandvoss and C.L. Harrington (eds.) fandom: Identities and communities in a mediated world. New York: NYU Press, pp. 179–197.Google Scholar
  49. Heinonen, K. and Michelsson, T. (2010) The use of digital channels to create customer relationships. International Journal of Marketing and Advertising 6 (1): 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hess, J. and Story, J. (2005) Trust-based commitment: Multidimensional consumer-brand relationships. Journal of Consumer Marketing 22 (6): 313–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Holbrook, M.B. and Hirschman, E.C. (1982) The experiential aspects of consumption: Consumer fantasies, feelings, and fun. Journal of Consumer Research 9 (2): 132–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hopkinson, G.C. and Hogarth-Scott, S. (2001) What happened was … Broadening the agenda for storied research. Journal of Marketing Management 17 (1): 27–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Huang, W. (2010) Brand story and perceived brand image: Evidence from Taiwan. Journal of Family and Economic Issues 31 (3): 307–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ilhan, B. (2011) Transmedia consumption experiences: Consuming and co-creating interrelated stories across media. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/handle/2142/26398, accessed 2 February 2012.
  55. Jenkins, H. (2006) Convergence Culture. New York, NY: University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Kackman, M., Binfield, M., Payne, M.T., Perlman, A. and Sebok, B. (2010) Flow TV: Television in the Age of Media Convergence. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. Kankanhalli, A., Tan, B.C. and Wei, K. (2005) Contributing knowledge to electronic knowledge repositories: An empirical investigation. MIS Quarterly 29 (1): 113–143.Google Scholar
  58. Kelley, C.A., Conant, J.S. and Smart, D.T. (1991) Master teaching revisited: Pursuing excellence from the students’ perspective. Journal of Marketing Education 13 (2): 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kennick, W.E. (1985) Art and inauthenticity. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 44 (1): 3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kinder, M. (1993) Playing with Power in Movies, Television and Video Games: From Muppet Babies to Teenage Mutant Turtles. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  61. King, R.A., Racherla, P. and Bush, V.D. (2014) What we know and don’t know about online word-of-mouth: A review and synthesis of the literature. Journal of Interactive Marketing 28 (3): 167–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kivetz, R. and Simonson, I. (2002) Earning the right to indulge: Effort as a determinant of customer preferences toward frequency program rewards. Journal of Marketing Research 39 (May): 155–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. KLD (2014) MSCI ESG impact monitor. http://www.msci.com/products/esg/, accessed 20 November 2014.Google Scholar
  64. Lam, S., Ahearne, M., Mullins, R., Hayati, B. and Schillewaert, N. (2013) Exploring the dynamics of antecedents to consumer-brand identification with a new brand. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 41 (2): 234–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Laroche, M., Habibi, M.R. and Richard, M. (2013) To be or not to be in social media: How brand loyalty is affected by social media. International Journal of Imformation Management 33 (1): 76–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Laverie, D.A. and Arnett, D.B. (2000) Factors affecting fan attendance: The influence of identity salience and satisfaction. Journal of Leisure Research 32 (2): 225–246.Google Scholar
  67. Leigh, J., Murphy, P. and Enis, B. (1989) Perceived societal benefit of selected product classes: A test of a product differentiation framework. Journal of Macromarketing 9 (2): 142–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lilly, B. and Nelson, T.R. (2003) Fads: Segmenting the fad-buyer market. Journal of Consumer Marketing 20 (2/3): 252–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Liu-Thompkins, Y. and Rogerson, M. (2012) Rising to stardom: An empirical investigation of the diffusion of user-generated content. Journal of Interactive Marketing 26 (1): 71–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Long, G. (2007) Transmedia storytelling. Business, aesthetics and production at the Jim Henson Company. Master’s dissertation, MIT. http://cms.mit.edu/research/theses/GeoffreyLong2007.pdf.
  71. Lundqvist, A., Liljander, V., Gummerus, J. and van Riel, A. (2013) The impact of storytelling on the consumer-brand experience: The case of a film-originated story. Journal of Brand Management 20 (4): 283–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Martin, I.M., Stewart, D.W. and Matta, S. (2005) Branding strategies, marketing communication and perceived brand meaning: The transfer of purposive, goal-oriented brand meaning to brand extensions. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 33 (3): 275–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Martindale, C. (1991) Cognitive Psychology: A Neural-Network Approach. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  74. McCracken, G. (1988) The Long Interview. Newbury Park, London and New Delhi: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. McKee, R. (2003) Storytelling that moves people: A conversation with screenwriting coach, Robert McKee. Harvard Business Review 81 (6): 51–55.Google Scholar
  76. Melewar, T.C. (2003) Determinants of the corporate identity construct: A review of the literature. Journal of Marketing Communications 9 (4): 195–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Miller, R.S. (1997) Inattentive and contented: Relationship commitment and attention to alternatives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 73 (4): 758–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Moroko, L. and Uncles, M.D. (2009) Employer branding and market segmentation. Journal of Brand Management 17 (3): 181–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Morgan, R. and Hunt, S. (1994) The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing 58 (1): 20–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Muniz, Jr A. and Schau, H. (2007) Vigilante consumers and consumer created communications. Journal of Advertising 36 (3): 35–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Muntinga, D.G., Moorman, M. and Smit, E.G. (2011) Introducing COBRAs, exploring motivations for brand-related social media use. International Journal of Advertising 30 (1): 13–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nan, X. and Heo, K. (2007) Consumer responses to corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives: Examining the role of brand-cause fit in cause-related marketing. Journal of Advertising 36 (2): 63–74.Google Scholar
  83. O’Reilly, T. (2005) What is web 2.0? O’Reilly. http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html, accessed 20 December 2012.
  84. Papadatos, C. (2006) The art of storytelling: How loyalty marketers can build emotional connections to their brands. Journal of Consumer Marketing 23 (7): 382–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Park, C.W., Jaworski, B.J. and MacInnis, D.J. (1986) Strategic brand concept management. Journal of Marketing 50 (4): 135–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Park, C.W., Milberg, S. and Lawson, R. (1991) Evaluation of brand extensions: The role of product feature similarity and brand concept consistency. Journal of Consumer Research 18 (2): 185–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Park, C.W. and Srinivasan, V. (1994) A survey-based method for measuring and understanding brand equity and its extendibility. Journal of Marketing Research 31 (2): 271–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pennington, N. and Hastie, R. (1992) Explaining the evidence: Tests of the story model for juror decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 62 (2): 189–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Perez, R.C. (2009) Effects of perceived identity based on consumer social responsibility: The role of consumer identification with the company. Corporate Reputation Review 12 (2): 177–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Perryman, N. (2008) Doctor Who and the convergence of media: A case study in ‘transmedia storytelling’. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies 14 (1): 21–39.Google Scholar
  91. Phelps, J.E., Lewis, R., Mobilio, L., Perry, D. and Raman, N. (2004) Viral marketing or electronic word-of-mouth advertising: Examining consumer responses and motivations to pass along email. Journal of Advertising Research 44 (4): 333–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Phelps, D., Rogers, H.T.E. and Johnson, E. (1996) Is your company ready for one-to-one marketing? Harvard Business Review 77 (1): 151–160.Google Scholar
  93. Polonsky, M.J. and Jevons, C. (2006) Understanding issue complexity when building a socially responsible brand. European Business Review 18 (5): 340–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sangalang, A., Johnson, J. and Ciancio, K.E. (2013) Exploring audience involvement with an interactive narrative: Implications for incorporating transmedia storytelling into entertainment-education campaigns. Critical Arts: South-North Cultural and Media Studies 27 (1): 127–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schank, R.C. (1990) Tell Me a Story: Narrative and Intelligence. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Schank, R.C. (1999) Dynamic Memory Revisited. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Schouten, J.W. and McAlexander, B.F. (1995) Subcultures of consumption: An ethnography of new bikers. Journal of Consumer Research 22 (1): 43–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schultz, D.E., Tannenbaum, S.I. and Lauterborn, R.F. (1993) Integrated Marketing Communication. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Business Books.Google Scholar
  99. Scolari, C. (2008) Online brands: Building possible worlds and interactive grammars. Semiotica 169 (1/4): 143–162.Google Scholar
  100. Scolari, C. (2009) Transmedia storytelling: Implicit consumers, narrative worlds, and branding in contemporary media production. International Journal of Communication 3: 586–606.Google Scholar
  101. Sen, S. and Bhattacharya, C.B. (2001) Does doing good always lead to doing better? Consumer reactions to corporate social responsibility. Journal of Market Research 38 (2): 225–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Seraj, M. (2012) We create, we connect, we respect, therefore, we are: Intellectual, social and cultural value in online communities. Journal of Interactive Marketing 26 (4): 209–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Shankar, A. and Goulding, C. (2001) Interpretive consumer research: Two more contributions to theory and practice. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal 4 (1): 7–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Singh, S. and Sonnenburg, S. (2012) Brand performance in social media. Journal of Interactive Marketing 26 (4): 189–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Smith, A., Fischer, E. and Yongjian, C. (2012) How does brand-related user-generated content differ across YouTube, Facebook and Twitter? Journal of Interactive Marketing 26 (2): 102–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Smith, S.M. and Krugman, D.M. (2009) Viewer as media decision-maker: Digital video recorders and household media consumption. International Journal of Advertising 28 (2): 231–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Stein, N.L. and Albro, E.R. (1997) Building complexity and coherence: Children’s use of goal-structured knowledge in telling stories. In: M. Bamberg (ed.) Narrative Development: Six Approaches. Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates, pp. 5–44.Google Scholar
  108. Strauss, A. and Corbin, J. (2008) Basics of qualitative research. 3rd edn. Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. Thousand Oaks, London and New Delhi: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  109. Suddaby, R. (2006) What grounded theory is not. Academy of Management Journal 49 (4): 633–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Tenderich, B. (2014) Transmedia Branding. Berlin, Germany: Eimo.Google Scholar
  111. Thompson, S.A. and Sinha, R.K. (2008) Brand communities and new product adoption: The influence and limits of oppositional loyalty. Journal of Marketing 72 (November): 65–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Thomson, M., MacInnis, D.J. and Park, W. (2005) The ties that bind: Measuring the strength of consumers’ emotional attachments to brands. Journal of Consumer Psychology 15 (1): 77–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Ulaga, W. and Eggert, A. (2006) Value-based differentiation in business relationships: Gaining and sustaining key supplier status. Journal of Marketing 70 (1): 119–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Urde, M., Greyser, S.A. and Balmer, J.T. (2007) Corporate brands with a heritage. Journal of Brand Management 15 (1): 4–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Vanden Bergh, B.G. and Lee, M. (2011) The multidimensional nature and brand impact of user-generated ad parodies in social media. International Journal of Advertising 30 (1): 103–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Voorveld, H.A.M., van Noort, G. and Duijn, M. (2013) Building brands with interactivity: The role of prior brand usage in the relation between perceived website interactivity and brand responses. Journal of Brand Management 20 (7): 608–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Voss, K.E., Spangenberg, E.R. and Grohman, B. (2003) Measuring the hedonic and utilitarian dimensions of consumer attitude. Journal of Marketing Research 40 (3): 310–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Waitz, A., Epley, N. and Cacioppo, J.T. (2010) Social cognition unbound: Insights into anthropomorphism and dehumanization. Current Directions in Psychological Science 19 (1): 58–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wallendorf, M. and Arnould, E.J. (1988) My favorite things: A cross-cultural inquiry into object attachment, possessiveness, and social linkage. Journal of Consumer Research 14 (4): 531–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Webb, D.J. and Mohr, L.A. (1998) A typology of consumer responses to cause-related marketing: From skeptics to socially concerned. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 17 (2): 226–238.Google Scholar
  121. Wiedmann, K.P., Hennigs, N., Schmidt, S. and Wuestefeld, T. (2011) The importance of brand heritage as a key performance driver in marketing management. Journal of Brand Management 19 (3): 182–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Williams, J.C. (2003) Principles of transmedia branding. Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California.Google Scholar
  123. Wood, M.W. and Baughman, L. (2012) Glee fandom and Twitter: Something new, or more of the same old thing? Communication Studies 63 (3): 328–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Woodside, A. (2010) Brand consumer storytelling theory and research: Introduction to a psychology and marketing special issue. Psychology & Marketing 27 (6): 531–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Yoon, D., Choi, S.M. and Sohn, D. (2008) Building customer relationships in an electronic age: The role of interactivity of e-commerce web sites. Psychology & Marketing 25 (7): 341–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Zarantonello, L. and Schmitt, B. (2010) Using the brand experience scale to profile consumers and predict consumer behavior. Journal of Brand Management 17 (7): 532–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Zickuhr, K. (2010) Generations 2010, Pew internet and American life project. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Generations-2010/Overview.aspx, accessed 12 February 2012.

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.California State University, FullertonFullertonUSA

Personalised recommendations