Citizen participation in politics has always been a defining characteristic of democracy. Empirical research into political participation therefore practically always results in an assessment of the state of democracy as well. But what counts, and what does not count as political participation? At least since the 1960s, scholars have provided different conceptualizations of political participation. The concept has been broadened not only to reflect changes in theory but also in response to social and technological developments. As a result, a wide and ever increasing variety of definitions and conceptualizations are currently employed. Jan van Deth proposes an encompassing conceptual map in order to capture past, present and future forms of political participation. Marc Hooghe and Bengü Hosch-Dayican criticize his proposal. Hooghe argues that the politics at which political participation is aimed is a moving target itself, whereas Hosch-Dayican wants more attention for motivational...
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