American Journal of Cultural Sociology

, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp 97–149 | Cite as

How a literary work becomes a classic: The case of One Hundred Years of Solitude

  • Alvaro Santana-Acuña
Original Article

Abstract

If meanings are so contested and changeable, how can individuals reach a collective agreement about what makes some cultural objects meaningful over time and across space? And how can social scientists construe robust interpretations of cultural objects whose meanings are shifting and malleable? These questions are pertinent to literary classics, whose meanings relentlessly change, and yet people living in different countries and historical periods collectively agree about their significance. This article argues that a literary work can become a classic when it transcends its original context of production and its contents are progressively appropriated by actors and organizations that had no share in their production. Using the case of One Hundred Years of Solitude, this article, first, studies 10 ways in which that novel transcended its original context and, second, documents the appropriation of some of its contents in 56 countries between 1967 and 2013. To contribute to more robust interpretations of meaningful cultural objects with shifting meanings, this article offers four patterns (lived experience, universalization, artistic commensuration and entrenched criticism) involved in the collective fabrication of the value of One Hundred Years of Solitude as a literary classic.

Keywords

classics literature transcendence appropriation meaningfulness 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I am indebted to Mario Santana, Filiz Garip, Mariano Siskind and especially Michèle Lamont for their advice on this article. Earlier versions benefited from helpful comments of anonymous reviewers and participants at the Harvard Cultural Analysis Workshop, the Evaluation Practices in Art Worlds workshop at the Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung, the Center for Cultural Sociology Conference at Yale University, the Eighteenth International Conference of Europeanists-Council for European Studies (Barcelona) and the Sociology Seminar Series at the University of Edinburgh. For excellent comments on the latter version I thank Bart Bonikowski, Thomas Medvetz, Christopher Muller and Catherine Turco. Hsin-Chao Wu, Huan Jin and Wenping Xue provided assistance with Chinese data, Dong-Kyun Im with Korean and Shiori Yamada with Japanese. Finally I thank Jean-Marie Le Clézio, Orhan Pamuk and the late Carlos Fuentes, who kindly shared with me their views on how a literary work becomes a classic.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alvaro Santana-Acuña
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SociologyHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA

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