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The influences of forest stand management on biotic and abiotic risks of damage

Influences de la sylviculture sur le risque de dégâts biotiques et abiotiques dans les peuplements forestiers

Abstract

  • • This article synthesizes and reviews the available information on the effects of forestry practices on the occurrence of biotic and abiotic hazards, as well as on stand susceptibility to these damaging agents, concentrating on mammal herbivores, pest insects, pathogenic fungi, wind and fire.

  • • The management operations examined are site selection, site preparation, stand composition, regeneration method, cleaning and weed control, thinning and pruning, and harvesting. For each of these operations we have examined how they influence the occurrence of biotic and abiotic damaging agents, the susceptibility of European forests, and describe the ecological processes that may explain these influences.

  • • Overall, we find that the silvicultural operations that have the largest influence on both biotic and abiotic risks to European forest stands are closely related to species composition and the structure of the overstorey. Four main processes that drive the causal relationships between stand management and susceptibility have been identified: effect on local microclimate, provision of fuel and resources to biotic and abiotic hazards, enhancement of biological control by natural enemies and changes in individual tree physiology and development.

  • • The review demonstrates an opportunity to develop silvicultural methods that achieve forest management objectives at the same time as minimising biotic and abiotic risks.

Résumé

  • • Cette revue bibliographique s’intéresse aux effets de la sylviculture sur la sensibilité des peuplements forestiers aux principaux agents de dégâts biotiques et abiotiques que sont les mammifères herbivores, les insectes ravageurs, les champignons pathogènes, le feu et les vents forts.

  • • Les pratiques forestières analysées sont la sélection et la préparation des sites de reboisement, la définition de la composition en essences et le choix du matériel génétique, les méthodes de régénération et d’entretien, les modalités d’éclaircie et d’élagage, le mode de récolte finale. L’influence de chacune de ces opérations sur l’occurrence des agents de dégâts biotiques et abiotiques et sur la sensibilité des peuplements est examinée ainsi que les processus écologiques sous-jacents.

  • • Les opérations sylvicoles qui se révèlent les plus déterminantes pour la sensibilité des forêts en Europe sont celles qui affectent la composition et la structure de la strate arborée. Quatre principaux processus écologiques semblent expliquer la relation entre sylviculture et sensibilité des peuplements : la modification du micro-climat, l’apport de ressources ou de combustible aux agents de dégâts, l’amélioration du contrôle biologique par les ennemis naturels et l’altération de la physiologie et du développement des arbres.

  • • Cette revue permet donc d’envisager le développement de méthodes de gestion des peuplements forestiers qui permettent d’atteindre les objectifs de production tout en minimisant les risques de dégâts sanitaires.

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Correspondence to Hervé Jactel.

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Jactel, H., Nicoll, B.C., Branco, M. et al. The influences of forest stand management on biotic and abiotic risks of damage. Ann. For. Sci. 66, 701 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1051/forest/2009054

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Keywords

  • silviculture
  • stand
  • occurrence
  • susceptibility
  • pest
  • pathogen
  • wind
  • fire

Mots-clés

  • sylviculture
  • peuplement
  • occurrence
  • sensibilité
  • herbivores
  • pathogénes
  • vent
  • feu