Apidologie

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 367–387 | Cite as

Bumblebee vulnerability and conservation world-wide

Review Article

Abstract

We review evidence from around the world for bumblebee declines and review management to mitigate threats. We find that there is evidence that some bumblebee species are declining in Europe, North America, and Asia. People believe that land-use changes may be having a negative effect through reductions in food plants in many parts of the world, but that other factors such as pathogens may be having a stronger effect for a few species in some regions (especially for Bombus s. str. in North America). Evidence so far is that greater susceptibility to land-use change is associated world-wide with small climatic ranges, range edges, and late-starting colony-development cycles. More evidence is needed on the roles of pollen specialization, nest sites, hibernation sites, and pesticides. It is still too early to assess the success of schemes aimed at improving forage in agricultural and conservation areas. However, schemes aimed at raising public awareness have been very successful. Until proven safe, we recommend that live bumblebees should not be moved across continents or oceans for commercial pollination.

bumblebee Bombus threat vulnerability decline conservation 

Vulnérabilité des bourdons et conservation au niveau mondial

Bombus déclin population menace vulnérabilité protection utilisation des terres pesticide urbanisation ressource alimentaire 

Weltweite Anfälligkeit und Erhaltung der Hummeln

Zusammenfassung

Wir geben eine weltweite Übersicht für Hummeln über den Rückgang der Vorkommenshäufigkeit oder der Verbreitungsgebiete bestimmter Arten, über den Zeitverlauf dieser Änderungen, über Gefährdungsfaktoren und Charakteristika der besonders gefährdungsanfälligen Arten und über die weltweit daher am meisten gefährdeten Arten, sowie über Maßnahmen zur Abschwächung der Gefährdung. Hiernach finden wir Belege, dass einige Hummelarten in Europa (Abb. 1, 2), Nordamerika und Asien auf dem Rückgang sind. Es wird allgemein angenommen, dass die Verminderung des Futterpflanzenangebots durch die Änderungen in der Landnutzung in vielen Teilen der Welt einen negativen Einfluss ausübt, allerdings könnten andere Faktoren wie Pathogene bei einigen Arten in einigen Regionen (insbesondere bei Bombus s. str. in Nordamerika) einen stärkeren und kurzfristiger wirksamen Effekt haben. Die bisherigen Anhaltspunkte weisen darauf hin, dass die weltweit anfälligsten Arten tendentiell in spezialisierten klimatischen Bereichen und nahe an den Grenzen dieser Bereiche vorkommen und spät beginnende aber lange Kolonieentwicklungszyklen haben. Zur Rolle von Pollenspezialisierung, Nistplätzen, Überwinterungsplätzen und Pestiziden werden noch mehr Angaben benötigt. Aus der derzeitig verfügbaren begrenzten Information aus neueren Sammlungen um die Welt erstellen wir eine vorläufige Einschätzung, welche Arten wahrscheinlich am stärksten gefährdet sind (Tab. I) und wo diese vorkommen (Abb. 4). Es ist noch zu früh, um den Erfolg von Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung des Futterangebots in landwirtschaftlichen oder Erhaltungsgebieten zu beurteilen. Allerdings waren Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der öffentlichen Wahrnehmung sehr erfolgreich.

Hummeln Bombus Gefährdung Anfälligkeit Erhaltung 

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Copyright information

© Springer S+B Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EntomologyThe Natural History MuseumLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of Plant and Invertebrate EcologyRothamsted ResearchHarpendenUK

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