Annals of Forest Science

, Volume 66, Issue 2, pp 201–201 | Cite as

Natural stand structures, disturbance regimes and successional dynamics in the Eurasian boreal forests: a review with special reference to Russian studies

  • Ekaterina ShorohovaEmail author
  • Timo Kuuluvainen
  • Ahto Kangur
  • Kalev Jõgiste


  • • This review summarizes early stand-scale studies of pristine forest structures, disturbance regimes and successional patterns carried out in boreal Eurasia. We attempt to reveal, characterize and classify stand dynamic types that can be used as templates for nature-based forest management.

  • • The studies reviewed demonstrate multiple successional pathways in stand development in all types of pristine forests. All-aged stands driven by small-scale disturbances are formed over successional development of several hundreds of years. This endogenous development can be interrupted by stand-replacing or partial disturbances leading to successions with even-aged or cohort-structured stands, respectively. In Western Europe, the most common disturbances are windthrows, surface fires and fluctuations in moisture regime; in Eastern Europe and Siberia, the most common disturbances are crown and surface fires and insect outbreaks. Type, return interval and severity of disturbances are strongly influenced by the site conditions and successional stage of a stand.

  • • Based on characteristics of forest stands and disturbance regime, four main types of pristine boreal forest stand dynamics can be distinguished: (1) even-aged, compositional change dynamics, (2) even-aged, mono-dominant dynamics, (3) cohort dynamics and (4) fine-scale gap dynamics. These types can be mimicked in developing scenarios of ecological sustainable forest management in Eurasian boreal forests.


stand dynamics forest-forming process tree age structure succession nature-based management 

Structure des peuplements, régimes de perturbation et dynamiques de succession dans les forêts boréales eurasiennes : une revue basée sur des travaux russes


  • • Cette revue bibliographique résume les résultats de nombreuses études anciennes sur la structure des peuplements forestiers, sur les régimes de perturbation et sur les dynamiques de succession en forêt boréale eurasienne. Une typologie des modes de succession est proposée pour servir de cadre à une gestion forestière proche de la nature.

  • • Les études analysées montrent l’existence de multiples modes de succession et de développement des peuplements dans tous les types de forêts vierges analysées. Des peuplements mélangés comportant des arbres de tous âges se développent en réponse à des perturbations locales avec des dynamiques de plusieurs siècles. Ce développement endogène peut être interrompu par des renouvellements massifs ou des perturbations partielles qui conduisent à des successions basées sur des peuplements équiennes ou structurés en cohortes, respectivement. En Europe occidentale, les perturbations les plus fréquentes sont les chablis, les incendies de surface et des fluctuations des régimes hydriques ; en Europe oriental et en Sibérie, ce sont les incendies de surface et de canopée, et les attaques massives par des insectes.

  • • En se basant sur les caractéristiques des peuplements et des types de perturbations, nous avons pu identifier quatre types principaux de dynamiques forestières : (1) une dynamique de changement de composition spécifique avec une structure équienne ; (2) une dynamique de domination par une espèce avec une structure équienne ; (3) une dynamique de cohortes ; et (4) une dynamique de trouées locales. Ces types de succession peuvent servir de base pour le développement de scénarios de gestion forestière durable de ces forêts boréales eurasiennes.


dynamiques forestières succession forestière structure d’âge sylvigénèse gestion durable 


  1. Aaltonen V.T., 1919. On the natural regeneration of heath forests in Finnish Lapland I (Kangasmetsien luonnollisesta uudistumisesta Suomen Lapissa I). Commun. Inst. Forest. Finlandiae 1: 1–319 (in Finnish with German summary).Google Scholar
  2. Abaturov Yu.D., Pis’merov A.V., and Orlov A.Y., 1988. Pristine dark coniferous forests of southern taiga (“Kologrivskij les” reserve) (Korennye temnokhvojnye lesa yuzhnoj taigi (rezervat “Kologrivskij les”), M., Nauka, 220 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  3. Ahti T., Hämet-Ahti L., and Jalas J., 1968. Vegetation zones and their sections in northwestern Europe. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 5: 169–211.Google Scholar
  4. Alekseev S.V., 1948. Cuttings in the forests in the North (Rubki v lesakh Severa), M., L., 64 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  5. Angelstam P.K., 1998. Maintaining and restoring biodiversity in European boreal forests by developing natural disturbance regimes. J. Veg. Sci. 9: 593–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Angelstam P. and Kuuluvainen T., 2004. Boreal forest disturbance regimes, successional dynamics and landscape structures — a European perspective. Ecol. Bull. 51: 117–136.Google Scholar
  7. Anonymous, 1967. The uneven-aged forests and forestry in Siberia, Far East and Urals (Raznovozrastnye lesa Sibiri, Dal’nego Vostoka i Urala i vedeniye khozyajstva v nikh), Zhukov A.V (Ed.), Krasnoyarsk, Forest Institute, RAS (in Russian).Google Scholar
  8. Anonymous, 1991. The theory of forest-forming process (Teoria lesoobrazovatel’nogo protsessa). Abstracts Int. Conf. Krasnoyarsk, 186 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  9. Arnborg T., 1943. Granberger. A plantbiological study of apristine spruce forest in southern Lapland with special reference to forest types and regeneration (Granberget. En vextbiologisk undersökning av ett sydlapplänskt granskogområde med särskild hänsyn till skogtyper och föryngring), 290 p. (in Swedish).Google Scholar
  10. Attiwill P.M., 1994. The disturbance dynamics of forest ecosystems: the ecological basis for conservative management. For. Ecol. Manage. 63: 247–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baranov N.I. and Grigoriev K.I., 1955. The spruce forests in the North (El’niki Severa), M., L., 47 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  12. Bergeron Y., Leduc A., Harvey B., and Gauthier S., 2002. Natural fire regime: a guide for sustainable management of the Canadian boreal forest. Silva Fenn. 36: 81–95.Google Scholar
  13. Bhiry N., Payette S., and Robert E.C., 2007. Peatland development at the arctic tree line (Quebec, Canada) influenced by flooding and permafrost. Quat. Res. 67: 426–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bitrikh A.A., 1908. Study of the forests of the Ust’-Sysolsky uyezd (Ocherk lesov Ust’-Sysolskogo uezda). Lesnoy Journal 4–5: 441–464 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  15. Bogoslovsky S.A., 1921. Study of the increment of an uneven-aged spruce forest in connection with demands of selective harvesting system (Issledovaniye prirosta raznovozrastnogo elovogo lesa v svyazi s voprosami vyborochnogo khozyaystva). Bulletin Nauchnogo i Tehknologicheskogo Obschestva: 3–57 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  16. Bogushevsky V., 1912. Apropos of article by Rozhkov, Forest inventory in the northern forests” (Po povodu statyi Rozhkova “K ustroystvu severnykh lesov”). Lesnoy Journal 2–3: 299–310 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  17. Buryak L.V., Luzganov A.G., Matveev P.M., and Kalenskaya O.P., 2003. Impact of surface fires on formation of light-coniferous forests in the South of Middle Siberia (Vliyaniye nizovykh pozharov na formirovaniye svetlokhvojnykh nasazhdenij juga Sredney Sibiri), Krasnoyarsk, 206 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  18. Buzykin A.I., 1967. Age structure of pine forests of Eastern Pribajkalye (O vozrastnom stroenii sosnovykh drevostoev Vostochnogo Pribajkalya). In: The uneven-aged forests and forestry in Siberia, Far East and Urals (Raznovozrastnye lesa Sibiri, Dal’nego Vostoka i Urala i vedeniye khozyajstva v nikh), Krasnoyarsk. pp. 14–18 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  19. Cajander A.K., 1909. On forest types. Über Waldtypen. Acta For. Fenn. 1(1): 1–175.Google Scholar
  20. Cajander A.K., 1926. The theory of forest types. Acta For. Fenn. 29(3): 1–108.Google Scholar
  21. Clements F.E., 1904. The development and structure of vegetation. Botanical Survey of Nebraska 7, Studies in the vegetation of the state, Lincoln, Nebraska.Google Scholar
  22. Clements F.E., 1916. Plant succession. Carnegie Institute of Washington, Publication 242, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  23. Dekatov N.E., 1961. Measures for natural regeneration during mechanical harvesting (Meropriyatiya po vozobnovleniyu lesa pri mekhanizirovannykh lesozagotovkakh), M., L., 276 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  24. Dyrenkov S.A., 1984. Structure and dynamics of taiga spruce forests (Struktura i dinamika tayezhnykh el’nikov), Leningrad, Nauka Publ., 176 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  25. Dyrenkov S.A., Shergol’d O.E., 1973. Cuttings of the main usage in middle- and southern boreal spruce forests in European part of the USSR (Rubki glavnogo pol’zovaniya v el’nikakh srednei yuzhnotaezhnoj podzon evropejskoj chasti SSSR), Leningrad, 36 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  26. Ermolenko P.M., 1967. Age structure of pine forest stands in country between rivers Ija and Oka in Eastern Sayan (Vozrastnoye stroenije sosnovikh drevostoev Iya-Okinskogo mezhdurechya Vostochnogo Sayana). In: The uneven-aged forests and forestry in Siberia, Far East and Urals (Raznovozrastnye lesa Sibiri, Dalnego Vostoka i Urala i vedeniye khozyajstva v nikh), Krasnoyarsk, pp. 47–52 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  27. Falaleev R.N., 1985. Forests of Siberia (Lesa Sibiri), Krasnoyarsk, 134 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  28. FAO, 2007. Fire management — global assessment 2006, FAO Forestry paper 151, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  29. Fedorchuk V.N., Kuznetsova M.L., Andreeva A.A., and Moiseev D., 1998. Forest reserve of “Vepssky les”. Forestry research (Rezervat “Vepsskij Les” Lesovodstvennyje issledovanija), St-Pet. For. Res. Inst. Publ., 208 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  30. Frey T.E.A., 1978. The Finnish school and forest site-types. In: R.H. Whittaker (Ed.), Classification of plant communities, Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, pp. 81–110.Google Scholar
  31. Furyaev V.V., 1970. Impact of fires and Siberian silkworm outbreaks on formation of forests between Ket’ and Chulym rivers (Vliyaniye pozharov i massovykh razmnozhenij sibirskogo shelkopryada na formirovaniye lesov Ket’-Chulymskogo mezhdurechya), Forest Sciences (Voprosy lesovedenya) 1: 408–421 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  32. Furyaev V.V., 1996. The role of fires in forest-forming process (Rol’ pozharov v protsesse lesoobrazovaniya), Novosibirsk, Nauka, 253 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  33. Glagolev V.A., 1975. Some features of the structure and development of an uneven-aged larch stand in the Northern part of Primorye (Nekotorye cherty stroyeniya i razvitiya raznovozrastnogo listvennichnogo drevostoya severnogo Primorya). Russian Forest Sciences (Lesovedenye) 2: 98–103 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  34. Glagolev V.A., 1976. Peculiarities of the age structure of larch forests in the Central Sikhote-Alin’ in connection with fires (Osobennosti vozrastnogo stroeniya lictvennichnykh lesov srednego Sikhote-Alinya v svyazi s pozharami). Russian Forest Sciences (Lesovedenye) 5: 69–77 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  35. Gorshkov V.V., Stavrova N.I., and Tarasova V.N., 2004. Damage of Pinus sylvestris trees and tree layer in pine forests due to fire in the European North (Povrezhdeniye derevyev sosny obyknovennoj i drevesnogo yarusa sosnovikh lesov Evropejskogo severa v rezul’tate pozharov). Russian Forest Science (Lesovedeniye) 5: 10–19 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  36. Gorsky P.V., 1962. Methodological recommendations for development of growth tables of uneven-aged stands and techniques of their compilation (Metodicheskiye polozhenyia po sostavleniyu eskizov tablits khoda rosta raznovozrastnykh nasazhdenyi i tekhnika sostavlenya ikh), Alma-Ata, 32 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  37. Gromtsev A., 2002. Natural disturbance dynamics in the boreal forests of European Russia: a review. Silva Fenn. 36: 41–55.Google Scholar
  38. Granström A., 2001. Fire management for biodiversity in the European boreal forest. Scand. J. For. Res. Suppl. 3: 62–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gromtsev A.N., 1996. Retrospective analysis of natural fire regimes in landscapes of Eastern Fennoscandia and problems of their anthropogenic transformation. In: Goldammer J.G. and Furyaev V.V. (Eds.), Fire in ecosystems of boreal Eurasia, Dortrecht-Boston-London. pp. 45–54.Google Scholar
  40. Gusev I.I., 1964. The structure and peculiarities of mensuration in spruce forests in the North (Stroenye i osobennosti taksatsii el’nikov Severa), Moskow, 232 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  41. Hofgaard A., 1993. Fifty years of change in a Swedish boreal old-growth Picea abies forest. J. Veg. Sci. 4: 773–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Huse S., 1964. Structural forms of primeval forest stands in Övre Pasvik. Structurformer hos urskogbestand i Ovre Pasvik. Institutt for Skogkjotsel. Norger Landbrukshogskole, Vollebekk (In Norwegian with German summary).Google Scholar
  43. Hytteborn H. and Packham J.R., 1985. Left to nature: forest structure and regeneration in Fiby urskog, central Sweden. Arbor. J. 9: 1–11.Google Scholar
  44. Hytteborn H., Maslov A.A., Nazimova D.I., and Rysin L.P., 2005. Boreal forests of Eurasia. In: Andersson F. (Ed.), Coniferous forests, Ecosystems of the World, Vol. 6, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 23–99.Google Scholar
  45. Ilvessalo Y., 1920. Growth and yield tables for pine, spruce and birch forests in southern Finland (Kasvuja tuottotaulukot Suomen eteläpuoliskon mänty-, kuusija koivumetsille). Acta For. Fenn. 15: 1–96 (in Finnish).Google Scholar
  46. Ilvessalo Y., 1937. Growth and development of natural normal stands in Peräpohjola (Peräpohjolan luonnonnormaalien metsiköiden kasvu ja kehitys). Commun. Inst. For. Fenn. 24: 1–168 (in Finnish with English summary).Google Scholar
  47. Ilvessalo Y., 1967. On the development of natural normal stands in Kainuu and its vicinity (Luonnonnormialen metsiköiden kehityksestä Kainuussa ja sen lähiympäristössä). Acta For. Fenn. 81: 1–85 (in Finnish).Google Scholar
  48. Ilvessalo Y., 1970. Natural development and productivity of stands on mineral soil sites in northern Lapland (Metsiköiden luontainen kehitysja puuntuottokyky Pohjois-Lapin kivennäismailla). Acta For. Fenn. 108: 1–43 (in Finnish).Google Scholar
  49. Ivanov V.A., 1996. Mechanism of fire emergence from lightning (Mehanizm vozniknoveniya lesnogo pozhara ot molnii). Siberian Ecological Journal (Sibirskij ekologicheskij zhurnal) 1: 103–107 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  50. Ivashkevich B.A., 1915. Manchurian forest. Description for the Eastern forest concession of the community of Chinese-Eastern Railway with the plan of economy (Manchzhurskiy les. Opisaniye Vostochnoy lesnoy kontsessii obschestva Kitaisko-Vostochnoy zheleznoy dorogi i plan khozyaistva na neyo), Issue 1, Harbin (in Russian).Google Scholar
  51. Ivashkevich B.A., 1929. The virgin forest, peculiarities of its structure and development (Devstvenniy les, osobennosti ego stroenya i razvitiya). Forestry and Forest Industry (Lesnoye khozyastvo i Lesnaya Promyshlennost’) 10–12: 36–44 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  52. Jakovlev G.V., 1983. Age structure of forest stands in Southern taiga European part of USSR (Vozrastnaya struktura drevostoev juzhnoj tajgi evropejskoj chasti SSSR). Russian Forest Sciences (Lesovedenye) 5: 33–40 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  53. Kalela E.K., 1948. Nature-based treatment of forests (Luonnonmukainen metsien käsittely) Silva Fenn. 64: 16–32 (in Finnish).Google Scholar
  54. Kangur A., Korjus H., Jõgiste K., and Kiviste A., 2005. A conceptual model of forest stand development based on permanent sample-plot data in Estonia. Scand. J. For. Res. 20 (Suppl 6): 94–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kataeva K.V. and Korzukhin M.D., 1987. Dynamics of the darkconiferous-Siberian pine forests (Dinamika temnokhvoynokedrovikh lesov), M., 115 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  56. Kaurichev I.S., Panov N.P., Rozov N.N., Stratonovich M.V., and Fokin A.D., 1989. Soil science (Pochvovedenije), 4th Ed., Agropromizdat, Moscow (in Russian).Google Scholar
  57. Kazimirov N.I., 1971. Spruce forests of Karelia (El’niki Karelii), Leningrad, Nauka, 140 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  58. Kolesnikov B.P., 1956. The Siberian pine forests of the Far East (Kedrovye lesa Dal’nego Vostoka), M., L. Russian Academy of Sciences Publ, 262 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  59. Komin G.E., 1983. Successions in uneven-aged forests and possibilities of their prediction (Smeny pokolenij v raznovozrastnykh lesakh i vozmozhnosti ikh prognoza). Forest Sciences (Lesovedenye) 4: 49–55 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  60. Komin G.E., 1993. Cyclicity of the forest-forming process (Tsyclichnost’ lesoobrazovatel’nogo processa). Russian Forest Sciences (Lesovedenye) 1: 3–9 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  61. Komin G.E., 2003. Some aspects of dynamics of stand age structure (Nekotorye aspekty dinamiki vozrastnoj struktury drevostoev). Forest Sciences (Lesovedenye) 4: 54–6 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  62. Konstantinov V.D. and Gorozhankina S.M., 1995. Regeneration dynamics of middle boreal forest ecosystems: Central Siberian Biosphere Reserve case study (Vosstanovitel’naya dinamika lesnykh ekosistem srednej tajgi na primere Tsentral’no-Sibirskogo biosfernogo zapovednika). Lesovedenye (Russian Forest Science) 2: 13–21 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  63. Korchagin A.A., 1956. The spruce forests in the west Pritimanye in the basin of river Mezenskaya Pizhma (their structure and regeneration) (Eloviye lesa Zapadnogo Pritimanya v basseyne reki Mezenskoy Pizhmi (ikh stroenye i vozobnovlenye). Proceedings of the Leningrad State University, Geographical Series 11: 111–239 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  64. Kostuchenko I.S., 1977. Dynamics of dark-coniferous-Siberian pine forests in Western Siberia (Dinamika temnokhvoyno-kedrovykh lesov Zapadnoy Sibiri), Doctoral thesis, Krasnoyarsk, 242 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  65. Kozachenko I.I., 1912. Arguing for selection felling (V zaschitu vyborochnikh rubok), StP., 19 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  66. Kozin E.K., 1982. On cyclic development of virgin forests in the Sikhote-Alin’ (O tsyklichnosti razvitiya devstvennykh lesov Sikhote-Alinya). Forest Sciences (Lesovedenye) 3: 24–31 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  67. Kravchinsky D.M., 1901. Consequences of clear cuts in the forests in northern and middle Russia (O posledstviyakh sploshnyhk rubok v lesakh severnoj i srednej Rossii), StP, PP “Sojkin”, 31 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  68. Kurbatskij N.P., 1954. Methodical guidance for developing local classifications of forest fire hazard (Metodicheskiye ukazaniya dlya razrabotki mestnykh shkal pozharnoj opasnosti v lesakh), Leningrad, Lenoblizdat (in Russian).Google Scholar
  69. Kurbatskij N.P., 1964. Forest fire problem (Problema lesnykh pozharov). In: Emergence of forest fires (Vozniknoveniye lesnykh pozharov), pp. 5–60 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  70. Kurzin N.I., 1958. Growth tables of mixed deciduous-spruce and spruce-deciduous forest stands of the watershed between Volga and Dvina (Tablitsi khoda rosta smeshannikh listvenno-elovikh i elovolistvennikh nasazhdeniy vodorazdela Volgi i Severnoy Dviny), L., 18 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  71. Kuuluvainen T., 1994. Gap disturbance, ground microtopography, and the regeneration dynamics of boreal coniferous forests in Finland: a review. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 31: 35–51.Google Scholar
  72. Kuuluvainen T., 2002. Natural variability of forests as a reference for restoring and managing biological diversity in boreal Fennoscandia. Silva Fenn. 36: 97–125.Google Scholar
  73. Kuuluvainen T., Syrjänen K., and Kalliola R., 1998. Structure of a pristine Picea abies forest in northeastern Europe. J. Veg. Sci. 9: 563–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lähde E., Laiho O., Norokorpi Y., and Saksa T., 1991. The structure of advanced virgin forests in Finland. Scand. J. For. Res. 6: 527–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lähde E., Laiho O., and Norokorpi Y., 1999. Diversity-oriented silviculture in the boreal zone of Europe. For. Ecol. Manage. 118: 223–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Leemans R., 1991. Canopy gaps and establishment patterns of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in two old-growth coniferous forests in central Sweden. Vegetatio 93: 157–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Leibundgut H., 1982. Virgin European forests on mountain ranges (Europäische Urwälder der Bergstufe), Bern, Stuttgart, 308 S (in German).Google Scholar
  78. Levin V.I. and Gusev I.I., 1958. The growth trend of even-aged spruce forests in 3th, 4th and 5th site classes in Arkhangelsk region (Khod rosta odnovozrastnykh el’nikov III, IV, V klassov boniteta Arkhangelskoy oblasti). Forest Journal (Lesnoy Journal) 6: 24–30 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  79. Liu Q.H. and Hytteborn H., 1991. Gap structure, disturbance and regeneration in a primeval Picea abies forest. J. Veg. Sci. 2: 391–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Maksimov V.A., 1967. The structure and growth of Lapland pine in the Murmansk region (Stroenye i khod rosta nasazhdeniy sosny Laplandskoy v Murmanskoy oblasti). In: Studies on boreal forestry in the European North (Voprosy taezhnogo lesovodstva na Evropeyskom Severe), M., pp. 79–87 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  81. Mal’gin N.G., 1842. Some comments on growing of Siberian pine (Nekotorye zamechaniya o proizrastanii sibirskogo kedra). Lesnoy Journal 2: 332–361 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  82. Man’ko Y.I., 1967. The fir-spruce forests in the northern Sikhote-Alin’ (Pikhtovo-Elovyie lesa Severnogo Sikhote-Alinya), L., Nauka, 244 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  83. Man’ko Y.I., 1996. Geographical peculiarities of the forest-forming process in dark coniferous forests in the Far East (Geograficheskiye osobennosti lesoobrazovatel’nogo protsessa v temnokhvoinykh lesakh Dal’nego Vostoka). Russian Forest Science (Lesovedenye) 4: 3–11 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  84. Man’ko Y.I., 2004. The forest-forming process and classification of forest vegetation (Lesoobrazovatel’niy protsess i ksassifikatsia lesnoy rastitelnosti). Russian Forest Sciences (Lesovedenye) 5: 3–9 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  85. Masing V. (Ed.), 1979. Botany: vegetation ecology, geography, geobotany, Valgus, Talinn (in Estonian).Google Scholar
  86. Melekhov I.S., 1947. Nature of a forest and forest fires (Priroda lesa i lesnye pozhary), Arkhangelsk, OGIS, 60 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  87. Melekhov I.S., 1948. Impact of fires on forest (Vliyaniye pozharov na les), M., Goslestekhizdat, 127 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  88. Melekhov I.S., 1962. Cuttings of the main usage (Rubki glavnogo pol’zovanya), M., 329 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  89. Melekhov I.S., 1980. Forest science (Lesovedeniye), M., 403 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  90. Moiseenko S.N., 1967. Age structure of Korean pine stands (K voprosu o vozrastnoj structure i stroenii drevostoev kedra korejskogo). In: The uneven-aged forests and forestry in Siberia, Far East and Urals (Raznovozrastnye lesa Sibiri, Dalnego Vostoka i Urala i vedeniye khozyajstva v nikh), Krasnoyarsk, pp. 111–121 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  91. Morozov G.F., 1912. The doctrine about forest (Ucheniye o lese), Saint Petersburg, 83 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  92. Morozov G.F., 1925. The doctrine about forest (Ucheniye o lese), Goslesizdat, 368 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  93. Niklasson M. and Granström A., 2000. Numbers and sizes of fires: Long-term spatially explicit fire history in a Swedish boreal landscape. Ecology 81: 1484–1499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Nikolov N. and Helmisaari H., 1992. Silvics of the circumpolar boreal tree species. In: A systems analysis of the global boreal forest, H. Shugart R. Leemans, and G.B. Bonan (Eds.), pp. 13–84.Google Scholar
  95. Nordlind E. and Östlund L., 2003. Retrospective comparative analysis as a tool for ecological restoration: a case study in a Swedish boreal forest. Forestry 76, 243–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ogorodov N.V., 1951. The growth trend of closed spruce fir forests by forest types in the north-east of the European part of the USSR (Khod rosta somknutykh elovo-pikhtovikh nasazhdeniy po tipam lesa na severo-vostoke evropeyskoy chasti SSSR). Lesnoye Khozyaystvo 2: 49–55 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  97. Oksanen J., 1990. Vegetation science in Finland. J. Veg. Sci 1: 277–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Orlov M.M., 1927, 1928. Forest inventory (Lesoustroystvo), M. L., Lesnoye khozyajstvo, lesnaya promyshlennost’ i toplivo, V 1, 2, 3 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  99. Pakhuchij V.V., 1999 Virgin forests of Northern Ural region (Devstvennyje lesa Severnogo Priural’ya), Saint Petersburg, Nauka, 135 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  100. Pobedinsky A.V., 1961. Cuttings of the main usage (Rubki glavnogo pol’zovanya), M., L., 147 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  101. Pobedinsky A.V., 1980. Cuttings of the main usage (Rubki glavnogo pol’zovanija), Moskow, 191 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  102. Pole F.R., 1906. About the forests of the northern Russia (O lesakh severnoy Rossii). Proceedings on experimental forest studies (Trudy po lesnomu opytnomu delu) 4: 76–131 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  103. Pole F.R., 1915. A list of forestry and botanic-geographical literature in Northern Russia and Finland (Ukazatel’ lesovodstvennoj i botanikogeograficheskoj literatury Severnoj Rossii i Finlyandii), Petrograd (in Russian).Google Scholar
  104. Polyakov V.I. and Semechkin I.V., 2004. Dynamics and stability of uneven-aged Siberian pine stands in the Western Sayan Mountains (Dinamika i ustojchivost’ raznovozrastnykh chernevykh kedrovnikov Zapadnogo Sayana). Russian Forest Sciences (Lesovedenye) 2: 12–19 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  105. Povarnitsin V.A., 1941. The forest types for Siberian larch in USSR (Tipy lesov sibirskoy listvennitsi SSSR). Proc. Siberian For. Tec. Inst. Goslesbumizdat (in Russian).Google Scholar
  106. Povaritsin V.A., 1944. The Siberian pine forests in the USSR (Kedrovye lesa SSSR), Krasnoyarsk (in Russian).Google Scholar
  107. Prozorov S.S., 1929. Burns in pine forests as centres of pest damages (Gari v sosnovykh lesakh kak ochagi zarazhenija, Omsk (in Russian).Google Scholar
  108. Pugachevsky A.V., 1992. Populations of spruce: Structure, dynamics, controlling factors (Tsenopopulyatsii eli: struktura, dinamika, factory regulyatsii), Minsk, Navuka i tekhnika, 202 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  109. Saari E., 1923. Forest fires in Finland. Acta. For. Fenn. 26: 1–155 (in Finnish with English summary).Google Scholar
  110. Scherbakov I.P. and Chugunova R.V., 1960. Classification of burnt areas in the Southern-Western and Central Jakutija (O klassifikatsii garej v Yugo-Zapadnoj i Tsentral’noj Yakutii). Proceedings of Siberian Branch of RAS, No. 1 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  111. Sedykh V.N., 1979. Forming the Siberian pine forests in Priob’e (Formirovaniye kedrovikh lesov Priobya), Novosibirsk, Nauka (in Russian).Google Scholar
  112. Sedykh V.N., 1991. The forest-forming process: concepts and methods of study (Lesoobrazovatel’niy protsess: ponyatiya i metody issledovaniya). In: The theory of forest-forming process (Teoria lesoobrazovatel’nogo protsessa), Abstracts Int. Conf. Krasnoyarsk, pp. 139–142 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  113. Sernander R., 1936. Granskär och Fiby urskog (Summary: The primitive forests of Granskär and Fiby: a study of the part played by storm-gaps and dwarf trees in the regeneration of the Swedish spruce forest), Acta Phytogeogr. Suec. 8 (in Swedish).Google Scholar
  114. Shanin S.S., 1967. Peculiarities of mensuration of uneven-aged pine and larch forest stands in Siberia (K voprosu ob osobennostyakh taksatsii raznovozrastnyhk sosnovykh i listvennichnykh drevostoev Sibiri). In: The uneven-aged forests and forestry in Siberia, Far East and Urals (Raznovozrastnye lesa Sibiri, Dalnego Vostoka i Urala i vedeniye khozyajstva v nikh), Krasnoyarsk, pp. 27–35 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  115. Shavnin A.G., 1959. The experience of partition of uneven-aged spruce-fir forests into separate age generations on the base of mensuration (Opyt raschlenenya raznovozrastnykh elovo-pikhtovikh nasazhdeniy na otdel’niye vozrastnye pokolenya po dannym perechislitel’noy taksatsii). Proc. Ural For. Tec. Inst., 3: 38–41 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  116. Shevelev S.L., 1999. Age structure of larch forests in Middle Siberia (Vozrastnaya struktura listvennichnikov Srednej Sibiri). In: Forest mensuration and inventory, Krasnoyarsk, pp. 44–50 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  117. Siitonen J., 2001. Forest management, coarse woody debris and saproxylic organisms: Fennoscandian boreal forests as an example. Ecol. Bull. 49: 11–41.Google Scholar
  118. Sinelschikov R.G., 1958. The age structure of spruce forests (K voprosu o vozrastnoj structure el’nikov). Forest Journal (Lesnoy Journal) 5: 13–22 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  119. Sirén G., 1955. The development of spruce forest on raw humus sites in Northern Finland and its ecology. Acta For. Fenn. 62: 1–408.Google Scholar
  120. Skvortsova E.B., Ulanova N.G., and Basevich V.F., 1983. Ecological role of windthrows (Ekologitcheskaya rol’ vetrovalov). M., For. Ind. Publ., 192 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  121. Smolonogov E.P., 1960. Dynamics of age structure of broad-leaved-spruce-fir forests in the Urals (K voprosu dinamiki vozrastnoy struktury i stroenya drevostoev shirokolistvenno-elovo-pikhtovikh lesov Urala). In: Proceedings of the Institute of Biology of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Science, Issue 14 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  122. Smolonogov E.P., 1968. Peculiarities of dynamics and structure of dark-coniferous forests of the northern-boreal Urals and adjacent part of the West-Siberian plain (Osobennosti dinamiki i stroeniya temnokhvoyno-kedrovykh lesov severnoy taigi Urala i prilegayuschey chasti Zapadno-Sibirskoy ravniny). In: Materials on dynamics of vegetation cover (Materialy po dinamike rastitel’nogo pokrova), Vladimir, pp. 39–40 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  123. Smolonogov E.P., 1990. Ecological-geographical differentiation and dynamics of Siberian pine forests in Ural and Western-Siberian Plain: ecological-forestry basics of optimization of forestry (Ekologogeograficheskaya differentsiatsia i dinamika kedrovikh lesov Urala i Zapadno-Sibirskoj ravniny: ekologo-lesovodstvennyje osnovy potimizatsii khozyajstva), Sverdlovsk (in Russian).Google Scholar
  124. Smolonogov E.P., 1999. About a forest-forming process (O lesoobrazovatel’nom protsesse). Russian Forest Sciences (Lesovedenye) 3: 7–12 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  125. Smolonogov E.P., 2000. Forest-forming process and windthrows (Lesoobrazovatel’niy protsess i vetrovaly). In: The consequences of catastrophic windthrow for forest ecosystems (Posledstviya katastroficheskogo vetrovala dlya lesnykh ecosystem), Alesenko Yu.M.v. (Ed.), Ekaterinburg, URO RAS, pp. 12–18 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  126. Smolonogov E.P., Kirsanov V.A., and Trusov P.F., 1971. Peculiarities of age dynamics of dark-coniferous Siberian pine forests in Northern Ural (Osobennosti vozrastnoj dinamiki temnokhvojno-kedrovikh lesov Severnogo Urala). In: Use and renewal of Siberian pine forests (Ispol’zovaniye i vosproizvodstvo kedrovykh lesov), Krylov G.V. (Ed.), Novosibirsk, Nauka, pp. 73–81 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  127. Sofronov M.A. and Volokitina A.V., 1990. Division of taiga zone into pyrological districts (Pirologicheskoye rajonirovaniye v tayezhnoj zone), Novosibirsk, Nauka, 205 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  128. Sokolovsky V., 1908. The typological study of the forests of Arkhangelsk region according to the research data and personal observations (Tipologichesly ocherk lesov Arkhangel’skoy gubernii po dannym raznykh issledovaniy i po lichmym nabludeniyam). Forest Journal (Lesnoy Journal) 8: 985–1032 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  129. Soloviev K.P. and Solodukhin E.D., 1953. Classification of burnt areas in the Far East (Klassifikatsya garej na Dalnem Vostoke). Forestry (Lesnoye khozyajstvo) No. 2 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  130. Storozhenko V.G., 2004. Stable forest communities (Ustojchivyje lesnyje soobschestva). In: Fungal communities in forest ecosystems (Gribnyje soobschestva lesnykh ekosistem), Karelian Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences, vol. 2., pp. 52–60 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  131. Storozhenko V.G., Bondartseva M.A., Soloviev V.A., and Krutov V.I., 1992. Scientific grounds of resilience of forests against wood decaying fungi (Nauchnyje osnovy ustojchivosti lesov k derevorazrushauschim gribam), Moskow, Nauka, 222 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  132. Svalov N.N., 1961. The continuous forest use in primeval forests (Nepreryvnoye lesopol’zovanye v neosvoennykh lesakh). Forestry (Lesnoye Khozyaystvo) 12: 27–31 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  133. Tikhonov A.S. and Zyabchenko S.S., 1990. Theory and practice of forest cuttings (Teorija i praktika rubok lesa), Petrozavodsk, Karelian Science Centre RAS, 224 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  134. Timofeev N., 1894. About forests of the Far North (O lesakh kraynego Severa). Forest Journal (Lesnoy Journal) 1: 17–45 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  135. Tkachenko M.E., 1931. Concentrated cuts, exploitation and forest regeneration (Kontsentrirovannye rubki, ekspluatatsiya i vozobnovleniye lesa), M. L., Sel’kolkhozgiz, 176 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  136. Tolmachev A.I., 1954. History of origin and development of dark coniferous taiga (K istoryii vozniknoveniya i razvitiya temnokhvoinoy taigi), M. L., RAS USSR, 156 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  137. Turkov V.G., 1985. About uprooting in primeval forest as about biogeocoenotic phenomenon (O vyvale derev’ev v lesu vetrom kak o biogeotsenoticheskom yavlenii). In: Dark coniferous forests of Middle Ural (Temnokhvojnye lesa Srednego Urala), USC RAS pp. 121–140 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  138. Ulanova N.G., 2000. The effects of windthrow on forests at different spatial scales: a review. For. Ecol. Manage. 135: 155–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Utkin A.I., 1965. Forests of Central Yakutiya (Lesa tsentral’noj Jakutii), M., Nauka, 208 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  140. Utkin A.I., 1999. The ’Forest-forming process’ — concept of Russian forest science (“Lesoobrazovatel’niy protsess” — kontseptsia Rossiyskogo lesovedeniya). Russian Forest Sciences (Lesovedeniye) 3: 13–23 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  141. Utkin A.I., 1991. The forest-forming process from ecological point of view (Lesoobrazovatel’niy protsess s pozitsii ekologii). In: The theory of forest-forming process (Teoria lesoobrazovatel’nogo protsessa), Abstracts Int. Conf. Krasnoyarsk, pp. 161–162 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  142. Valendik E.N. and Ivanova G.A., 2001. Fire regimes in the forests of Siberia and Far East (Pozharnye rezhimy v lesakh Sibiri i Dal’nego Vostoka). Russian Forest Sciences (Lesovedenye) 4: 69–76 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  143. Valyaev V.N., 1961. The age structure of spruce forests of the Mezensky region (Vozrastnaya struktura el’nikov Mezenskogo rayona). Forest Journal (Lesnoy Journal) 5: 25–29 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  144. Valyaev V.N., 1984. Selective and clear cuttings in Karelia, Petrozavodsk, 63 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  145. Vargas de Bedemar, 1850. Studies of the growing stock and increment of forest stands in the Saint-Petersburg gubernya (Issledovanya zapasa i prirosta lesonasazhdeniy Sankt-Peterburgskoy gubernii), SPb, Vol’no-Economicheskoye Obschestvo (in Russian).Google Scholar
  146. Vaschuk L.N. and Shvidenko A.Z., 2006. Dynamics of forests of Irkutsk region (Dinamika lesnykh prostranstv Irkutskoj oblasti), Irkutsk, 392 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  147. Verkhunov P.M., 1970. Genesis and age structure of modern pine forests in Siberia (Genezis i vozrastnoye stroenije sovremennykh sosnovykh lesov Sibiri). Forestry research in the forests of Siberia (Lesovodstvennyje issledovanija v lesakh Sibiri) 2: 7–58 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  148. Verkhunov P.M., 1979. The volume increment of uneven-aged pine forests (Prirost zapasa raznovozrastnykh sosnyakov), Novosibirsk, 248 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  149. Volkov A.D., 2003. The bio-ecological basics of exploitation of spruce forests in the north-west of taiga zone of Russia (Bioekologicheskye osnovi ekspluatatsii el’nikov severo-zapada taezhnoy zony Rossii), Petrozavodsk, Karelian Science Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences, 250 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  150. Voropanov P.V., 1950. The spruce forests in the North (El’niki Severa), M., L., Goslesbumizdat, 143 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  151. Vygodskaya N.N., Abrazhko V.I., Varlagin A.V., Kurbatova Yu.A., Sidorov K.N., Milyukova I.M., Sogachev A.F., Sogacheva L.M., Shaposhnokov E.S., Nepomnyashchii G.I., and Abrazhko M.A., 2004. Long-term dynamics of soil moisture and drying of spruce trees in spruce forests of the southern taiga (Mnogoletnyaya dinamika pochvennogo uvlazhneniya i usykhaniye yeli v yelovikh lesakh evropeyskoj taigi). Russian Forest Sciences (Lesovedenye) 1: 3–22 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  152. Yaroshenko A.Yu., Potapov P.V., and Turubanova S.A., 2001. The last intact forest landscapes of Northern European Russia, Green Peace Russia, 77 p.Google Scholar
  153. Yashnov L.I., 1934. Cuttings of forest (Rubki lesa), Joshkar-Ola (in Russian).Google Scholar
  154. Zyabchenko S.S., 1970. Improvement of cutting methods in pine forests in Karelia (Sovershenstvovanije sposobov rubok v sosnyakakh Karelii). Forestry (Lesnoye khozyajstvo) 5: 29–32 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  155. Zyabchenko S.S., 1984. Pine forests of the European North (Sosnovye lesa evropeyskogo Severa), L., Nauka, 248 p. (in Russian).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer S+B Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ekaterina Shorohova
    • 1
    Email author
  • Timo Kuuluvainen
    • 2
  • Ahto Kangur
    • 3
  • Kalev Jõgiste
    • 3
  1. 1.Saint-Petersburg State Forest AcademySaint-PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.Department of Forest EcologyUniversity of HelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.Institute of Forestry and Rural EngineeringEstonian University of Life SciencesTartuEstonia

Personalised recommendations