Apidologie

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 313–331 | Cite as

A survey and review of the status of wild bees in the West-Palaearctic region

Review Article

Abstract

Bees (a.k.a. Apoidea Anthophila) are among the main pollinators in most ecosystems. The yearly value of the ecological services provided worldwide by pollinators reaches more than € 150 billion. As in many other groups, the erosion of bee diversity is now a well-assessed reality. However, quantification of the phenomenon, including the assessment of its extent and severity has been lacking for a long time. In the West-Palaearctic, the decrease in wild bees has been highlighted in several studies over the last few decades. Specifically, the plight of a few populations of bees in Europe has been measured and assessed. In this paper, we review the state of the knowledge of bee diversity in the West-Palaearctic. We present the available resources usable for estimation of the extinction risk in West-Palaearctic bees. We also point out the work that is needed to outline a holistic picture of West-Palaearctic bee diversity. We conclude by suggesting that former initiatives should be integral in developing the framework of a subregion-wide monitoring program for bees.

diversity taxonomy West-Palaearctic Europe Apoidea 

Le point sur le statut des abeilles sauvages dans la région ouest-paléarctique

Apoidea diversité écologique taxonomie Europe protection 

Eine Erhebung und eine Übersicht über den Stand der Wildbienen in der westlichen paläarktischen Region

Zusammenfassung

Weltweit beläuft sich der Wert der der Bestäubung von Nutzpflanzen auf hunderte von Milliarden $US. Ein bedeutender Anteil davon entfällt auf die Tätigkeit von Bestäubern, insbesondere Bienen, deren zu beobachtende Abnahme daher eine globale Bedrohung dastellt. Darüber hinaus betrachten wir die relevanten Erfassungsstrategien in der westlichen paläarktischen Region. Der vorliegende Artikel will die bestehenden Möglichkeiten einer Risikoabschätzung für die Bienen der westlichen paläarktischen Region inventarisieren. Wir stellen verfügbare Informationsquellen vor, in denen die Diversität der Bienen in der westlichen parläarktischen Unterregion dokumentiert sind. Darüber hinaus betrachten wir die relevanten Erfassungsstrategien der Bienendiversität.

Die Kenntnisse über die europäische Bienenfauna (69 Gattungen und 2048 Arten, nach Polaszek 2005) ist nun robust genug, eine erste Analyse des Artenreichtums und Verteilung der Arten zu ermöglichen (Abb. 1). Als Daumenregel beherbergen die mediterranen Ökosysteme reichere Faunen. Verschiedene ökologische Merkmale können diese Polarität in der Verteilung des Artenreichtums erklären: (i) das günstigere Energie- und Wassergleichgewicht; (ii) die Rolle dieser Gebiete während der quaternären Vergletscherungen; (iii) die Zunahme des Artenreichtums durch die Spezialisierungen in Wüstenpopulationen; (iv) die Rolle von Trockengebieten in der frühen Diversifikation.

Der Wissenshintergrund ist für die östlichen und südlichen Teile der West-Paläearktis merklich schwächer und skizzenhafter. Nichtsdestoweniger wurde gezeigt, dass die Verteilung des Artenreichtums in der nördlichen und südlichen Sahara Afrikas von dem Energie- und Wassergleichgewicht bestimmt wird. Diese Schlussfolgerungen sind leicht mit denen Michener’s (1979) in Einklang zu bringen. Wo Wasser keinen begrenzenden Faktor darstellt, folgt der Artenreichtum einem Breitengradienten.

In einigen europäischen Ländern stehen bis zu 65 % der Bienenarten auf der roten Liste. Die ermittelten hauptsächlichen Gründe für die Bedrängnis der Arten sind: (i) Stückelung der Habitate und Änderungen der Landnutzung; (ii) Abnahme der Blütendiversität und Blütenanzahl (Abb. 3); (iii) Insektizide und die direkte und indirekte Toxizität anderer landwirtschaftlicher Ausbringungen (wie z.B. Auswirkungen von Stickstoffablagerungen); (iv) physikalische Hindernisse (z.B. Fernstrassen). Ähnliche Beeinträchtigungen betreffen mit hoher Wahrscheinlichkeit auch die südliche und östliche westpaläarktische Region.

Erhaltungsmaßnahmen stützen sich auf Populationserfassungen und Taxonomie. Während des zweiten Teils des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts kam es zu einer starken Verarmung an europäischen Bienentaxonomen. Jedoch gibt es mehrere Initiativen, die sich mit der Erfassung der Bienen und der Zusammenstellung von Datensammlungen befassen und deren gesammelten Daten von anderen Körperschaften genutzt wurden (z. B. ALARM).

Angesichts der offensichtlichen Abnahme der Bienendiversität müssen die für diese Tiere entwickelten Erhaltungsstrategien verbessert werden. Das Wissen über die Verteilung des Reichtums an Bienenarten weist darauf hin, dass keine der artenreichsten Faunen bislang wirklich erfasst wurden, während sie gleichzeitig stark bedroht sind. Erhaltungsmaßnahmen setzen die Entwicklung effizienter Erfassungsprogramme voraus. Die Erfahrungen der derzeitigen Arbeitsgruppen stellen einen wertvollen Ausgangspunkt für eine solche Entwicklung auf unterregionaler Ebene dar.

Diversität Taxonomie West-Paläarktik Europa Apoidea 

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Copyright information

© Springer S+B Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sébastien Patiny
    • 1
  • Pierre Rasmont
    • 2
  • Denis Michez
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculté universitaire des Sciences Agronomiques de GemblouxEntomologie fonctionnelle et évolutiveGemblouxBelgium
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Zoologie, PentagoneUniversité de Mons-HainautMonsBelgium

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