Apidologie

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 332–346

Diversity, threats and conservation of native bees in the Neotropics

  • Breno M. Freitas
  • Vera Lúcia Imperatriz-Fonseca
  • Luis M. Medina
  • Astrid de Matos Peixoto Kleinert
  • Leonardo Galetto
  • Guiomar Nates-Parra
  • J. Javier G. Quezada-Euán
Review Article

Abstract

The Neotropics bee fauna is very rich with 5000 recognised species, including 33 genera (391 species) of Meliponini, but it is estimated to be at least three fold greater in species richness. Deforestation, agriculture intensification and introduction/spread of exotic competing bee species are considered the main threats to most indigenous species, although other less obvious causes can affect the populations of some bee species locally. Efforts to conserve the native bee fauna include better knowledge of bee richness and diversity (standardized surveys, larger bee collections and appropriate identification of bee species) and of their population dynamics, raising of public and policy makers’ awareness, commercial applications of bee products and services such as pollination and preservation of natural habitat.

Apoidea bee biodiversity Central America South America conservation taxonomy 

Diversité, statut de conservation et menaces concernant les abeilles indigènes dans les régions néotropicales

Apoidea abeille biodiversité Amérique centrale Amérique du Sud protection taxonomie 

Diversität, Bedrohung und Schutz einheimischer Bienen in den Neotropen

Zusammenfassung

Die vorliegende Arbeit soll einen Überblick geben über die Diversität und den Artenreichtum der neotropischen Bienenfauna, die Bedrohungen, denen sie ausgesetzt ist, als auch eine Darstellung der Initiativen und Probleme im Artenschutz der einheimischen Bienen. Die Daten beruhen auf umfassenden Literaturrecherchen. Diese Informationen wurden dann von den Autoren diskutiert und in Form relevanter Punkte inhaltlich zusammengefasst. Das Ergebnis zeigt, dass die Neotropis eine artenreiche Bienenfauna aufweist und dass diese sogar unterschätzt wird. Den existierenden 5000 gültigen Artennamen stehen Schätzungen gegenüber, dass diese weniger als ein Drittel der tatsächlich vorkommenden Arten umfassen (Tab. I). Bedrohungen, denen einheimische Bienen der Neotropis ausgesetzt sind, liegen vor allem menschliche Aktivitäten zugrunde, die in drei Kategorien zusammengefasst werden können: Entwaldung, Intensivierung der Landwirtschaft und Einführung fremder Arten. Die Hauptursachen der Entwaldung sind Holzeinschlag, das Sammeln von Feuerholz, die Produktion von Holzkohle und Rodungen zur Schaffung von landwirtschaftlichen und Weideflächen. Der Amazonasregenwald, Mexiko und Zentralamerika weisen die höchsten Entwaldungsraten in Amerika auf, aber auch in den Chaco-Wälder der argentinischen und kolumbianischen Anden schreitet die Entwaldung fort (Tab. II). Die Ausbreitung und Intensivierung der Landwirtschaft wird vielfach als die wichtigste Bedrohung für Bienenarten angesehen. Sie führt zu einer Verringerung der Artendiversität bei Tieren und Pflanzen, verringert das Angebot an Nistmöglichkeiten und Futterquellen, und durch das Ausbringen von Pestiziden und Pflügen der Böden werden sowohl Bienenlarven als auch Adulte getötet. Ironischerweise sind die meisten Kulturpflanzen mehr oder weniger stark auf die Präsenz biotischer Bestäuber angewiesen, wobei die Bienen die wichtigste Gruppe darstellen. Auch die Einführung fremder Bienenarten und anderer exotischer Organismen, die mit der lokalen Bienenfauna in Wechselwirkung treten, kann die einheimische Bienenfauna beeinträchtigen. Die Einführung von Apis mellifera in die Neue Welt zur Steigerung der Honigproduktion und die von exotischen Hummelarten für Bestäubungszwecke hat zu Bedenken Anlass gegeben über die Konkurrenz mit einheimischen Bienen um Futter- und Nistmöglichkeiten, sowie zur Ausbreitung von Krankheiten und Parasiten und zur Hybridisierung mit einheimischen Hummmelarten. Anderen Bedrohungen liegen Trockenzeiten, Überschwemmungen, grossflächige Buschbrände, Hurrikane und die Kontaminierung der Ökosysteme mit Schwermetallen zugrunde. Die Hauptprobleme, denen sich Initiativen zum Artenschutz einheimischer Bienen gegenübersehen, sind fehlende Kenntnisse über Artenreichtum, Diversität, Taxonomie, Populationsdynamik und den Einfluss menschlicher Aktivitäten auf die meisten Bienenarten. Um zu besseren Kenntnissen über Artenreichtum, Diversität und Populationsdynamik zu kommen, ist Öffentlichkeitsarbeit und Aufklärung bei Politikverantwortlichen erforderlich. Hierin können die Kommerzialisierung von Bienenprodukten, sowie Aufklärung über die Bedeutung von Bestäubern und der Schutz natürlicher Habitate eine wichtige Rolle spielen. Bestäuberinitiativen erweisen sich hierbei als wichtige Werkzeuge, um Politiker, die Öffenlichkeit und Forscher in koordinierter Weise zusammenzubringen, Wissen über wichtige Fragen zu schaffen und insbesondere die negativen Auswirkungen bienenbedrohender Aktivitäten in Lateinamerika abzumildern.

Apoidea Bienen-Biodiversität Zentralamerika Südamerika Artenschutz Taxonomie 

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Copyright information

© Springer S+B Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Breno M. Freitas
    • 1
  • Vera Lúcia Imperatriz-Fonseca
    • 2
  • Luis M. Medina
    • 3
  • Astrid de Matos Peixoto Kleinert
    • 2
  • Leonardo Galetto
    • 4
  • Guiomar Nates-Parra
    • 5
  • J. Javier G. Quezada-Euán
    • 3
  1. 1.Departamento de Zootecnia - CCAUniversidade Federal do CearáFortalezaBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de BiociênciasUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de Apicultura, Campus de Ciencias Biológicas y AgropecuariasUniversidad Autónoma de YucatánMérida YucatánMexico
  4. 4.IMBIV (UNC - CONICET), Departamento de Diversidad Biologica y Ecologia, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y NaturalesUniversidad Nacional de CordobaCordobaArgentina
  5. 5.Departamento de Biología, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad Nacional de ColombiaSede BogotáColombia

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