Agronomy for Sustainable Development

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 33–46 | Cite as

Role of nutrients in controlling plant diseases in sustainable agriculture. A review

Review Article

Abstract

In recent years the importance of sustainable agriculture has risen to become one of the most important issues in agriculture. In addition, plant diseases continue to play a major limiting role in agricultural production. The control of plant diseases using classical pesticides raises serious concerns about food safety, environmental quality and pesticide resistance, which have dictated the need for alternative pest management techniques. In particular, nutrients could affect the disease tolerance or resistance of plants to pathogens. However, there are contradictory reports about the effect of nutrients on plant diseases and many factors that influence this response are not well understood. This review article summarizes the most recent information regarding the effect of nutrients, such as N, K, P, Mn, Zn, B, Cl and Si, on disease resistance and tolerance and their use in sustainable agriculture. There is a difference in the response of obligate parasites to N supply, as when there is a high N level there is an increase in severity of the infection. In contrast, in facultative parasites at high N supply there is a decrease in the severity of the infection. K decreases the susceptibility of host plants up to the optimal level for growth and beyond this point there is no further increase in resistance. In contrast to K, the role of P in resistance is variable and seemingly inconsistent. Among the micronutrients, Mn can control a number of diseases as Mn has an important role in lignin biosynthesis, phenol biosynthesis, photosynthesis and several other functions. Zn was found to have a number of different effects as in some cases it decreased, in others increased, and in others had no effect on plant susceptibility to disease. B was found to reduce the severity of many diseases because of the function that B has on cell wall structure, plant membranes and plant metabolism. Cl application can enhance host plants’ resistance to disease. Si has been shown to control a number of diseases and it is believed that Si creates a physical barrier which can restrict fungal hyphae penetration, or it may induce accumulation of antifungal compounds. Integrative plant nutrition is an essential component in sustainable agriculture, because in most cases it is more cost-effective and also environmentally friendly to control plant disease with the adequate amount of nutrients and with no pesticides. Nutrients can reduce disease to an acceptable level, or at least to a level at which further control by other cultural practices or conventional organic biocides are more successful and less expensive.

disease resistance tolerance plant physiology metabolism nutrients deficiency toxicity integrative pest management 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agrios N.G. (2005) Plant Pathology, 5th ed., Elsevier-Academic Press, p. 635.Google Scholar
  2. Alvarez J., Datnoff L.E. (2001) The economic potential of silicon for integrated management and sustainable rice production, Crop Prot. 20, 43–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anil L., Park J., Phipps R.H., Miller F.A. (1998) Temperate intercropping of cereals for forage: a review of the potential for growth and utilization with particular reference to the UK, Grass Forage Sci. 53, 301–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Atkinson D., McKinlay R.G. (1997) Crop protection and its integration within sustainable farming systems, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 64, 87–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Batish D.R., Singh H.P., Setia N., Kohli R.K., Kaur S., Yadav S.S. (2007) Alternative control of littleseed canary grass using eucalypt oil, Agron. Sustain. Dev. 27, 171–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blachinski D., Shtienberg D., Dinoor A., Kafkafi U., Sujkowski L.S., Zitter T.A., Fry W.E. (1996) Influence of foliar application of nitrogen and potassium on Alternaria diseases in potato, tomato and cotton, Phytoparasitica 24, 281–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blevins D.G., Lukaszewski K.M. (1998) Boron in plant structure and function, Annu. Rev. Plant Phys. 49, 481–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bockus W.W., Schroyer J.P. (1998) The impact of reduced tillage on soil-borne plant pathogens, Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 36, 485–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bolle-Jones E.W., Hilton R.N. (1956) Zinc-Deficiency of Hevea brasiliensis as a predisposing factor to Oidium infection, Nature (London) 177, 619–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brennan R.F. (1992) The role of manganese and nitrogen nutrition in the susceptibility of wheat plants to take-all in western Australia, Fertilizer Res. 31, 35–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brescht M.O., Datnoff L.E., Kucharek T.A., Nagata R.T. (2004) Influence of silicon and chlorothalonil on the suppression of grey leaf spot and increase plant growth in St. Augustinegrass, Plant Dis. 88, 338–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown P.H., Bellaloui N., Wimmer M.A., Bassil E.S., Ruiz J., Hu H., Pfeffer H., Dannel F., Romheld V. (2002) Boron in plant biology, Plant Biol. 4, 205–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown L.R. (2006) Plan B 2.0: Rescuing a planet under stress and a civilization in trouble, W.W. Norton & Company, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Büschbeil T., Hoffmann G.M. (1992) The effects of different nitrogen regimes on the epidemiologic development of pathogens on winter-wheat and their control, J. Plant Dis. Prot. 99, 381–403.Google Scholar
  15. Bryant J.P., Chapin F.S., Klein D.R. (1983) Carbon/nutrient balance of boreal plants in relation to vertebrate herbivory, Oikos 40, 357–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Camprubí A., Estaún V., El Bakali M.A., Garcia-Figueres F., Calvet C. (2007) Alternative strawberry production using solarization, metham sodium and beneficial soil microbes as plant protection methods, Agron. Sustain. Dev. 27, 179–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cakmak I.M. (2000). Possible roles of zinc in protecting plant cells from damage by reactive oxygen species, New Phytol. 146, 185–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carballo S.J., Blankenship S.M., Sanders D.C. (1994) Drip fertigation with nitrogen and potassium and postharvest susceptibility to bacterial soft rot of bell peppers, J. Plant Nutr. 17, 1175–1191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carter M.R. (1994) Strategies to overcome impediments to adoption of conservation tillage, in: Carter M.R. (Ed.), Conservation tillage in temperate agroecosystems, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 1–22.Google Scholar
  20. Carver T.L.W., Thomas B.J., Robbins M.R., Zeyen R.J. (1998) Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase inhibition, autofluorescence and localized accumulation of silicon, calcium and manganese in oat epidermis attacked by the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis (DC) Speer, Physiol. Mol. Plant P. 52, 223–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Celar F. (2003) Competition for ammonium and nitrate forms of nitrogen between some phytopathogenic and antagonistic soil fungi, Biol. Control 28, 19–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chase A.R. (1989) Effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilizer rates on severity of Xanthomonas blight of syngoniumpodophyllum, Plant Dis. 73, 972–975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cherr C.M., Scholberg J.M.S., McSorley R. (2006) Green manure approaches to crop production: a synthesis, Agron. J. 98, 302–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Diamond J. (2005) Collapse: How societies choose to fail or succeed, Penguin Books, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Dick W.A. (1984) Influence of long-term tillage and rotation combinations on soil enzyme activities, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48, 569–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dixon K.W., Frost K., Sivasithamparan K. (1990) The effect of amendment of soil with organic matter, a herbicide, and a fungicide on the mortality of seedlings of two species of Bankia inoculated with Phytophthora cinnamomi, Acta Hort. 264, 123–131.Google Scholar
  27. Dordas C., Brown P.H. (2005) Boron deficiency affects cell viability, phenolic leakage and oxidative burst in rose cell cultures, Plant Soil 268, 293–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Engelhard A.W. (1989) Soilborne plant pathogens management of disease with macro and microelements, APS Press, St. Paul, Minn., USA.Google Scholar
  29. Fernandez M.R., McConkey B.G., Zentner R.P. (1999) Effects of tillage method and fallow frequency on leaf spotting diseases of spring wheat in the semiarid Canadian prairies, Soil Till. Res. 50, 259–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Francis C.A. (1989) Biological efficiency in multiple cropping systems, Adv. Agron. 42, 1–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Graham D.R. (1983) Effects of nutrients stress on susceptibility of plants to disease with particular reference to the trace elements, Adv. Bot. Res. 10, 221–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Graham D.R., Webb M.J. (1991) Micronutrients and disease resistance and tolerance in plants, in: Mortvedt J.J., Cox F.R., Shuman L.M., Welch R.M. (Eds.), Micronutrients in Agriculture, 2nd ed., Soil Science Society of America, Inc. Madison, Wisconsin, USA, pp. 329–370.Google Scholar
  33. Grewal H.S., Graham R.D., Rengel Z. (1996) Genotypic variation in zinc efficiency and resistance to crown rot disease (Fusarium graminearum Schw. Group 1) in wheat, Plant Soil 186, 219–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Grosse-Brauckmann E. (1957) The influence of silicic acid on mildew infection of cereals with different nitrogen fertilizers, Phytopathol. Z. 30, 112–115.Google Scholar
  35. Hammerschmidt R., Nicholson R.L. (2000) A survey of plant defense responses to pathogens, in: Agrawal A.A., Tuzun S., Bent E. (Eds.), Induced plant defenses against pathogens and herbivores, APS Press, Minneapolis, USA, p. 390.Google Scholar
  36. Hanson J.D., Liebig M.A., Merrill S.D., Tanaka D.L., Krupinsky J.M., Stott D.E. (2007) Dynamic cropping systems: increasing adaptability amid an uncertain future, Agron. J. 99, 939–943.Google Scholar
  37. Harrison U.J., Shew H.D. (2001) Effects of soil pH and nitrogen fertility on the population dynamics of Thielaviopsis basicola, Plant Soil 228, 147–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Heckman J.R., Clarke B.B., Murphy J.A. (2003) Optimizing manganese fertilization for the suppression of take-all patch disease on creeping bentgrass, Crop Sci. 43, 1395–1398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Herms D.A., Mattson W.J. (1992) The dilemma of plants — to grow or defend, Q. Rev. Biol. 67, 283–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hoffland E., van Beusichem M.L., Jegger M.J. (1999) Nitrogen availability and susceptibility of tomato leaves to Botrytis cinerea, Plant Soil 210, 263–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hoffland E., Jegger M.J., van Beusichem M.L. (2000) Effect of nitrogen supply rate on disease resistance in tomato depends on the pathogen, Plant Soil 218, 239–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hoitink H.A.J., Van Doren D.M., Schmitthenner A.F. (1977) Suppression of Phytophthora cinnamomi in a composted hardwood bark potting medium, Phytopathology 67, 561–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Howard D.D., Chambers A.Y., Logan J. (1994) Nitrogen and fungicide effects on yield components and disease severity in wheat, J. Prod. Agr. 7, 448–454.Google Scholar
  44. Hu S., van Bruggen A.H.C., Wakeman R.J., Grunwald N.J. (1997) Microbial suppression of in vitro growth of Pythium ultimum and disease incidence in relation to soil C and N availability, Plant Soil 195, 43–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Huber D.M. (1980) The role of mineral nutrition in defense. In Plant Disease, An Advanced Treatise, Volume 5, How Plants Defend Themselves, in: Horsfall J.G., Cowling E.B. (Eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 381–406.Google Scholar
  46. Huber M.D. (1996a) Introduction, in: Engelhard W.A. (Ed.), Management of Diseases with Macro- and Microelements, APS Press, Minneapolis, USA, p. 217.Google Scholar
  47. Huber M.D. (1996b) The Role of Nutrition in the Take-All Disease of Wheat and Other Small Grains, in: Engelhard W.A. (Ed.), Management of Diseases with Macro- and Microelements, APS Press, Minneapolis, USA, pp. 46–74.Google Scholar
  48. Huber D.M., Watson R.D. (1974) Nitrogen form and plant disease, Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 12, 139–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Huber D.M., McCay-Buis T.S. (1993) A multiple component analysis of the take-all disease of cereals, Plant Dis. 77, 437–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Huber D.M., Graham R.D. (1999) The role of nutrition in crop resistance and tolerance to disease, in: Rengel Z. (Ed.), Mineral nutrition of crops fundamental mechanisms and implications, Food Product Press, New York, pp. 205–226.Google Scholar
  51. Keinath P.A., Loria R. (1996) Management of Common Scab of Potato with Plant Nutrients, in: Engelhard W.A. (Ed.), Management of Diseases with Macro- and Microelements, APS Press, Minneapolis, USA, pp. 152–166.Google Scholar
  52. Kiraly Z. (1976) Plant disease resistance as influenced by biochemical effects of nutrients and fertilizers. In Fertilizer Use and Plant Health, Proceedings of Colloquium 12. Atlanta, GA: International Potash Institute, pp. 33–46.Google Scholar
  53. Kirkegaard J.A., Munns R., James R.A., Neate S.M. (1999) Does Water and Phosphorus Uptake Limit Leaf Growth of Rhizoctonia-Infected Wheat Seedlings? Plant Soil 209, 157–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Krauss A. (1999) Balanced Nutrition and Biotic Stress, IFA Agricultural Conference on Managing Plant Nutrition, 29 June–2 July 1999, Barcelona, Spain.Google Scholar
  55. Kolattukudy E.P., Kämper J., Kämper U., González-Candelas L., Guo W. (1994) Fungus-induced degradation and reinforcement of defensive barriers of plants, in: Petrini O., Guellete G.B. (Eds.), Host Wall Alterations by Parasitic Fungi, APS Press, Minneapolis, USA, pp. 67–79.Google Scholar
  56. Kostandi S.F., Soliman M.F. (1991) Effect of nitrogen rates at different growth-stages on corn yield and common smut disease (Ustilage maydis (DC) Corda), J. Agron, Crop Sci. 167, 53–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lam A., Lewis G.C. (1982) Effects of nitrogen and potassium fertilizer application on Drechslera spp. and Puccinia-coronata on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) foliage, Plant Pathol. 31, 123–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lewandowski I., Hardtlein M., Kaltschmitt M. (1999) Sustainable crop production: Definition and methodological approach for assessing and implementing sustainability, Crop Sci. 39, 184–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Loschinkohl C., Boehm M.J. (2001) Composted biosolids incorporation improves turfgrass establishment on disturbed urban soil and reduces leaf rust severity, Hortscience 36, 790–794.Google Scholar
  60. Mann R.L., Kettlewell P.S., Jenkinson P. (2004) Effect of foliar-applied potassium chloride on septoria leaf blotch of winter wheat, Plant Pathol. 53, 653–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Marschner H. (1995) Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, 2nd ed., Academic Press, London, p. 889.Google Scholar
  62. Mengel K., Kirkby E.A. (2001) Principles of Plant Nutrition, 5th ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, Netherlands, p. 847.Google Scholar
  63. Menzies J., Bowen P., Ehret D., Glass A.D.M. (1992) Foliar applications of potassium silicate reduce severity of powdery mildew on cucumber, muskmelon and zucchini squash, J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 117, 902–905.Google Scholar
  64. Oborn I., Edwards A.C., Witter E., Oenema O., Ivarsson K., Withers P.J.A., Nilsson S.I., Richert Stinzing A. (2003) Element balances as a toll for sustainable nutrient management: a critical appraisal of their merits and limitations within an agronomic and environmental context, Eur. J. Agron. 20, 211–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ohashi Y., Matsuoka M. (1987) Localization of pathogenesis-related proteins in the epidermis and intercellular spaces of tobacco-leaves after their induction by potassium salicylate or tobacco masaic-virus infection, Plant Cell Physiol. 28, 1227–1235.Google Scholar
  66. Potash and Phosphate Institute (PPI) (1988) Phosphorus nutrition improves plant disease resistance, in PPI (Ed.), Better crops with plant food. Fall 1988. Atlanta, Georgia, USA, pp. 22–23.Google Scholar
  67. Reid L.M., Zhu X., Ma B.L. (2001) Crop rotation and nitrogen effects on maize susceptibility to gibberella (Fusarium graminearum) ear rot, Plant Soil 237, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Reuveni R., Reuveni M. (1998) Foliar-Fertilizer therapy — a concept in integrated pest management, Crop Prot. 17, 111–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Reuveni M., Agapov V., Reuveni R. (1997a) A foliar spray of micronutrient solutions induces local and systemic protection against powdery mildew (Sphaemtheca fuliginea) in cucumber plants, Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 103, 581–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Reuveni M., Agapov V., Reuveni R. (1997b) Controlling powdery mildew caused by Sphaemtheca fuliginea in cucumber by foliar sprays of phosphate and potassium salts, Crop Prot. 15, 49–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Reuveni M., Oppernheim D., Reuveni R. (1998) Integrated control of powdery mildew on apple trees by foliar sprays of mono-potassium phosphate fertilizer and sterol inhibiting fungicides, Crop Prot. 17, 563–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Reuveni R., Dor G., Raviv M., Reuveni M., Tuzun S. (2000) Systemic resistance against Sphaemtheca fuliginea in cucumber plants exposed to phosphate in hydroponics system, and its control by foliar spray of mono-potassium phosphate, Crop Prot. 19, 355–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rioux D., Biggs A.R. (1994) Cell wall changes and nonhost systems: Microscopic Aspects, in: Pertini O., Quellette B. (Eds.), Host Wall Alterations by Parasitic Fungi, APS Press, Minneapolis, USA, pp. 31–44.Google Scholar
  74. Robinson P.W., Hodges C.F. (1981) Nitrogen-induced changes in the sugars and amino acids of sequentially senescing leaves of Poa pratensis and pathogenesis by Drechslera sorokiniana, Phytopathol. Z. 101, 348–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Römheld V., Marschner H. (1991) Function of micronutrients in plants, in: Mortvedt J.J., Cox F.R., Shuman L.M., Welch R.M. (Eds.), Micronutrients in Agriculture. Soil Science Society of America, Inc. Madison, Wisconsin, USA, pp. 297–328.Google Scholar
  76. Rovira A.D., Graham R.D., Ascher J.S. (1983) Reduction in Infection of Wheat Roots by Gaeumanomyces graminis var. tritici with Application of Manganese to Soil, in: Parker C.A., Rovira A.D., Moore K.J., Wong P.T.W., Kollmorgen J.F. (Eds.), Ecology and Management of Soilborne Plant Pathogens, APS Press, Minneapolis, USA.Google Scholar
  77. Savant N.K., Snyder G.H., Datnoff L.E. (1997) Silicon management and sustainable rice production, Adv. Agron. 58, 151–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Schutte K.H. (1967) The Influence of boron and copper deficiency upon infection by Erysiphe graminis DC the powdery mildew in wheat var. Kenya, Plant Soil 27, 450–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Seebold K.W., Datnoff L.E., Correa-Victoria F.J., Kucharek T.A., Snyder G.H. (2000) Effect of silicon rate and host resistance on blast, scald and yield of upland rice, Plant Dis. 84, 871–876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Seebold K.W., Datnoff L.E., Correa-Victoria F.J., Kucharek T.A., Snyder G.H. (2004) Effect of silicon and fungicides on the control of leaf and neck blast in upland rice, Plant Dis. 88, 253–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sharma R.C., Duveiller E. (2004) Effect of helminthosporium leaf blight on performance of timely and late-seeded wheat under optimal and stressed levels of soil fertility and moisture, Field Crop Res. 89, 205–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sharma S., Duveiller E., Basnet R., Karki C.B., Sharma R.C. (2005) Effect of potash fertilization on helminthosporium leaf blight severity in wheat, and associated increases in grain yield and kernel weight, Field Crop Res. 93, 142–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Simoglou K., Dordas C. (2006) Effect of foliar applied boron, manganese and zinc on tan spot in winter durum wheat, Crop Prot. 25, 657–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Singh R. (1970) Influence of nitrogen supply on host susceptibility to tobacco mosaic virus infection, Phyton-Annales Rei Botanicae 14, 37–42.Google Scholar
  85. Spencer S., Benson D.M. (1982) Pine bark, hardwood bark compost, and peat amendment effects on development of Phytophthora spp. and lupine root rot, Phytopathology 72, 346–351.Google Scholar
  86. Srihuttagum M., Sivasithamparam K. (1991) The influence of fertilizers on root-rot of field peas caused by Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium vexans and Rhizoctonia solani inoculated singly or in combination, Plant Soil 132, 21–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Stone A.G., Scheuereil S.J., Darby H.D. (2004) Suppression of soilborne diseases in field agricultural systems: organic matter management, cover cropping and other cultural practices, Soil organic matter in sustainable agriculture, in: Magdoff F., Weil R.R. (Eds.), CRC Press, London UK.Google Scholar
  88. Szczech M.M., Rondomanski W., Brzeski M.W., Smolinska U., Kotowski J.F. (1993) Suppressive effect of a commercial earthworm compost on some root infecting pathogens of cabbage and tomato, Biol. Agr. Hortic. 10, 47–52.Google Scholar
  89. Timonin M.E. (1965) Interaction of higher plants and soil microorganisms. In Microbiology and soil fertility, in: Gilmore C.M., Allen O.N. (Eds.), Corvallis, OR, Oregon State University Press, pp. 135–138.Google Scholar
  90. Tziros G.T., Dordas C., Tzavella-Klonari K., Lagopodi A.L. (2006) Effect of two Pseudomonas strains and Fusarium wilt of watermelon under different nitrogen nutrition levels, Proceedings of the 12th Congress of Mediterranean Phytopathological Union, 11–15 June 2006, Rhodes Island Hellas, pp. 585–587.Google Scholar
  91. Vidhyasekaran P. (1997) Fungal pathogenesis in plants and crops, Molecular Biology and Host Defense Mechanisms, Marcel Dekker, New York, USA, p. 568.Google Scholar
  92. Vidhyasekaran P. (2004) Concise encyclopaedia of plant pathology, Food Products Press, The Haworth Reference Press, p. 619.Google Scholar
  93. Volk J.R., Kahn R.P., Weintraub R.L. (1958) Silicon content of rice plants as a factor influencing the resistance to infection by the blast fungus Piricularia oryzae, Phytopathology 48, 179–184.Google Scholar
  94. Wiese J., Bagy M.M.K., Shubert S. (2003) Soil properties, but not plant nutrients (N, P, K) interact with chemically induced resistance against powdery mildew in barley, J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 166, 379–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wilkens R.T., Spoerke J.M., Stamp N.E. (1996) Differential response of growth and two soluble phenolics of tomato to resource availability, Ecology 77, 247–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Woltz S.S., Engelhar A.W. (1973) Fusarium wilt of chrysanthemum effect of nitrogen source and lime on disease development, Phytopathology 63, 155–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Zhang Q., Fry J., Lowe K., Tisserat N. (2006) Evaluation of calcium silicate for brown patch and dollar spot suppression on turfgrasses, Crop Sci. 46, 1635–1643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© INRA, EDP Sciences 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Agriculture, Laboratory of AgronomyAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece

Personalised recommendations