Economics of biosecurity across levels of decision-making: a review

Review Article


Biosecurity is a concept that has important economic, social, ecological and health-related dimensions. By biosecurity we mean protection of production, ecosystems, health and the social infrastructure from external threats caused by pests, pathogens and diseases of various forms and origins. The fact that more goods, transport platforms and people are moving around the globe at increasing speeds provides unforeseen possibilities for rapid spread of different types of organisms. This is exacerbated by changes in the production structures and climate. As a result, both the benefits and the risks of changes in the food system cross borders more often, leading to an increased demand for biosecurity policies. Economics can be related to biosecurity in at least three fundamental ways. First, many of the ultimate or proximate causes of bioinvasions create economic welfare. Second, bioinvasions result in various types of impacts, many of which are economic by nature — or at least may be measured in economic terms. Third, the negative impacts of invasions or their probability of occurrence can often be either avoided or reduced. These biosecurity policies themselves have economic implications, which often may be quite different from those caused by the biological hazard itself. A few reviews of separate components of economics of biosecurity exist, but there have been no attempts to review the big picture. Instead, the previous reviews have concentrated on different components of biosecurity such as invasive species or animal diseases. Our aim is to look at the issue in broad terms, draw some commonalities from the research conducted, and identify areas in which economic analyses have primarily been conducted and in which areas there remains work to do. The review includes about 230 studies from all areas of biosecurity up to the year 2008. The review finds that study of economics of biosecurity is growing steadily, but is still relatively concentrated on narrow questions, few countries, few species/diseases and few journals.


biosecurity economics invasive species pests diseases review 


  1. Adamson D., Cook D. (2007) Re-examining economic options for import risk assessments, Murray Darling Program Working Paper M07#3, The University of Queensland, Australia.Google Scholar
  2. Andersson H., Lexmon Å., Robertsson J.-Å., Lundeheim N., Wierup M. (1997) Agricultural policy and social returns to eradication programs: the case of Aujeszky’s disease in Sweden, Prev. Vet. Med. 29, 311–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson K., McRae C., Wilson D. (2001) The economics of quarantine and the SPS agreement, Centre for International Economic Studies and AFFA Biosecurity Australia, Adeleide and Canberra.Google Scholar
  4. Barrett J., Segerson K. (1997) Prevention and treatment in environmental policy design, J. Environ. Econ. Manager. 33, 196–213.Google Scholar
  5. Batabyal A.A., Beladi H. (2006) International trade and biological invasions: a queueing theoretic analysis of the prevention problem, Eur. J. Oper. Res. 170, 758–770.Google Scholar
  6. Batabyal A.A., Nijkamp P. (2006) Some probabilistic attributes of inspection policies in alien species management, Ecol. Econ. 60, 5–8.Google Scholar
  7. Bennett R., Ijpelaar J. (2003) Economic assessment of livestock diseases in Great Britain, Final Report to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 19 September 2003.Google Scholar
  8. Bennett R., Ijpelaar J. (2005) Updated estimates of the costs associated with thirty four endemic livestock diseases in Great Britain: A Note, J. Dairy Res. 66, 455–459.Google Scholar
  9. Berentsen P.B.M., Dijkhuizen A.A., Oskam A.J. (1992) A dynamic model for cost-benefit analyses of foot-and-mouth disease control strategies, Prev. Vet. Med. 12, 229–243.Google Scholar
  10. Bermejo M., Rodríquez-Teijeiro J.D., Illera G., Barroso A., Vilà C., Walsh P.D. (2006) Ebola outbreak killed 5000 gorillas, Science 314, 1564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Biosecurity Council (2003) Tiakina Aotearoa. Protect New Zealand: the biosecurity strategy for New Zealand. Biosecurity Council. New Zealand, available online at
  12. Blignaut J.N., Marais C., Turpie J.K. (2007) Determining a charge for the clearing of invasive alien plant species (IAPs) to augment water supply in South Africa, Water SA 33, 27–34.Google Scholar
  13. Born W., Rauschmayer F., Bräuer I. (2005) Economic evaluation of biological invasions — a survey, Ecol. Econ. 55, 321–336.Google Scholar
  14. Breidenbach M.J., Engels M., Griot C., Stärk K.D.C. (2007) Quantitative risk assessment regarding the import of marker-vaccinated animals, A poster presented at the Annual Conference of the Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine (SVEPM), Helsinki/Espoo, Finland. 28–30 March 2007.Google Scholar
  15. Breukers A. (2007) Bio-economic modelling of brown rot in the Dutch potato production chain, PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  16. Buhle E.R., Margolis M., Ruesink J.L. (2005) Bang for buck: cost-effective control of invasive species with different life histories, Ecol. Econ. 52, 355–366.Google Scholar
  17. Burnett K., Kaiser B., Roumasset J. (2007) Economic lessons from control efforts for an invasive species: Miconia calvescens in Hawaii, J. For. Econ. 13, 151–167.Google Scholar
  18. Burnett K., Kaiser B., Pifafi B.A., Roumasset J. (2006) Prevention, eradication, and containment of invasive species: illustrations from Hawaii, Agric. Res. Econ. Rev. 35, 63–77.Google Scholar
  19. Burnett K.M., D’Evelyn S., Kaiser B.A., Nantamanasikarn P., Roumasset J.A. (2008) Beyond the lamppost: optimal prevention and control of the brown tree snake in Hawaii, Ecol. Econ. 67, 66–74.Google Scholar
  20. Butler R.V., Maher M.D. (1986) The control of externalities: abatement vs. damage prevention, Southern Econ. J. 52, 1088–1102.Google Scholar
  21. Buzy M., Marzin H., Anthoine G., Moens M., Inmand A. (2007) EC Sixth Framework ERA-NET Project EUPHRESCO, Report on the Mapping and Analysis of national Phytosanitary (Quarantine/Regulated Plant Health) Research Programmes.Google Scholar
  22. Cacho O.J., Wise R.M., Hester S.M., Sinden J.A. (2008) Bioeconomic modeling for control of weeds in natural environments, Ecol. Econ. 65, 559–568.Google Scholar
  23. Caley P., Lonsdale W.M., Pheloung P.C. (2006) Quantifying Uncertainty in Predictions of Invasiveness, Biol. Invasions 8, 277–286.Google Scholar
  24. Carvalho F.P. (2006) Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety, Environ. Sci. Policy 9, 685–692.Google Scholar
  25. CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity) (1992) Convention on Biological Diversity, available online at
  26. Cembali T., Folwell R.J., Wandschneider P., Eastwell K.C., Howell W.E. (2003) Economic implications of a virus prevention program in deciduous tree fruits in the US, Crop Prot. 22, 1149–1156.Google Scholar
  27. Chriél M., Stryhn H., Dauphin G. (1999) Generalised linear mixed models analysis of risk factors for contamination of Danish broiler flocks with Salmonella typhimurium, Prev. Vet. Med. 40, 1–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Christiaans T., Eichner T., Pethig R. (2007) Optimal pest control in agriculture, J. Econ. Dynam. Control 31, 3965–3985.Google Scholar
  29. Colautti R.I., Bailey S.A., van Overdijk C.D.A., Amundsen K., MacIsaac H.J. (2006) Characterised and projected costs of nonindigenous species in Canada, Biol. Invasions 8, 45–59.Google Scholar
  30. Connelly N.A., O’Neill C.R. Jr., Knuth B.A., Brown T.L. (2007) Economic impacts of zebra mussels on drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities, Environ. Manag. 40, 105–112.Google Scholar
  31. Cook D. (2005) The’ Paradox of Thrips’: identifying a critical level of investment in pest exclusion activities in Western Australia, Aust. Agribusiness Rev. 13, paper 11.Google Scholar
  32. Cook D., Proctor W. (2007) Assessing the threat of exotic plant pests, Ecol. Econ. 63, 594–604.Google Scholar
  33. Cook D.C. (2008) Benefit cost analysis of an import access request, Food Policy 33, 277–285.Google Scholar
  34. Cook D.C., Thomas M.B., Cunningham S.A., Anderson D.L., De Barro P.J. (2007) Predicting the economic impact of an invasive species on an ecosystem service, Ecol. Appl. 17, 1832–1840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Costello C., McAusland C. (2003). Protectionism, trade, and measures of damage from exotic species introductions, Am. J. Agr. Econ. 85, 964–975.Google Scholar
  36. Costello C., Springborn M., McAusland C., Solow A. (2007) Unintended biological invasions: does risk vary by trading partner? J. Environ. Econ. Manage. 54, 262–276.Google Scholar
  37. Council of Europe (2003) European strategy on invasive alien species, Strasbourg 5 September, 2003, T-PVS (2003), 7.Google Scholar
  38. Cowan P.E. (1992) The eradication of introduced Australian brushtail possums, Trichosurus vulpecula, from Kapiti Island, a New Zealand nature reserve, Biol. Conserv. 61, 217–226.Google Scholar
  39. Daily G.C., Ehrlich P.R. (1996) Impacts of development and global change on the epidemiological environment, Environ. Dev. Econ. 1, 311–346.Google Scholar
  40. Dalmazzone S. (2000) Economic factors affecting vulnerability to biological invasions, in: Perrings C., Williamson M., Dalmazzone S. (Eds.), 2000. The economics of biological invasions, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.Google Scholar
  41. De Vos C.J., Saatkamp H.W., Huirne R.B.M. (2005) Cost-effectiveness of measures to prevent classical swine fever introduction into The Netherlands, Prev. Vet. Med. 70, 235–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Dehnen-Schmutz K., Perrings C., Williamson M. (2004) Controlling Rhododendron ponticum in the British Isles: an economic analysis, J. Environ. Manage. 70, 323–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Dehnen-Schmutz K., Touza J., Perrings C., Williamson M. (2007) A century of the ornamental plant trade and its impact on invasion success, Diversity and Distributions 13, 527–534.Google Scholar
  44. Delfino D., Simmons P.J. (2000) Infectious diseases as invasives in human population, in: Perrings C., Williamson M., Dalmazzone S. (Eds.), 2000. The economics of biological invasions, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.Google Scholar
  45. Dixon B. (2007) A rotten end, The Lancet 7, 375.Google Scholar
  46. Djunaidi H., Djunaidi A.C.M. (2007) The economic impacts of avian influenza on world poultry trade and the U.S. poultry industry: a spatial equilibrium analysis, J. Agric. Appl. Econ. 39, 313–323.Google Scholar
  47. Eiswerth M.E., van Kooten G.C. (2002) Uncertainty, economics and the spread of an invasive plant species, Am. J. Agric. Econ. 84, 1317–1322.Google Scholar
  48. Elbakidze L. (2003) The economics of agricultural bio-security: an interpretive literature review, Texan A&M University Report.Google Scholar
  49. Elbakidze L., McCarl B.A. (2005) Ex ante vs. ex post bioterrorism mitigation: better safe than sorry? Paper prepared for presentation at the American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, Providence, Rhode Island, 24–27 July 2005.Google Scholar
  50. European Commission (2006) Evaluation of the Community animal health policy (CAHP) 1995–2004 and alternatives for the future, available at:
  51. Evans E.A., Spreen T.H., Knapp J.L. (2002) Economic issues of invasive pests and diseases and food safety, International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center Monograph Series MGTC02-2, University of Florida.Google Scholar
  52. FAO (2001) Economic impacts of transboundary plant pests and animal diseases, in: FAO, The State of Food and Agriculture 2001, FAO, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  53. FAO (2003) Committee on Agriculture, Seventeenth session: Biosecurity in Food and Agriculture, Rome, 31 March–4 April 2003.Google Scholar
  54. FAO/CTD (2006) Impact of animal disease outbreaks on livestock markets: an FAO analysis, available at:
  55. Fasina F.O., Meseko A.C., Joannis T.M., Shittu A.I., Ularamu H.G., Egbuji N.A., Sulaiman L.K., Onyekonwu N.O. (2007) Control versus no control: options for avian influenza H5N1 in Nigeria, Zoonoses and Public Health 54, 173–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Fernandez L. (2008) NAFTA and member country strategies for maritime trade and marine invasive species, J. Environ. Manage. 89, 308–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Finnoff D., Shogren J.F., Leung B., Lodge D. (2007) Take a risk: preferring prevention over control of biological invaders, Ecol. Econ. 62, 216–222.Google Scholar
  58. Food Outlook (2006) Impact of animal disease outbreaks on livestock markets: an FAO analysis, No. 2, December 2006.Google Scholar
  59. Gebhardt H. (1996) Ecological and economic consequences of introductions of exotic wildlife (birds and mammals) in Germany, Wildlife Biol. 2, 205–211.Google Scholar
  60. Genovesi P. (2005) Eradications of invasive alien species in Europe: a review, Biol. Invasions 7, 127–133.Google Scholar
  61. Goldbach S.G., Alban L. (2006) A cost-benefit analysis of Salmonellacontrol strategies in Danish pork production, Prev. Vet. Med. 77, 1–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Gramig B.M., Wolf C.A. (2007) Estimating within-herd preventive spillovers in livestock disease management, Am. J. Agric. Econ. 89, 1219–1225.Google Scholar
  63. Gren I.-M. (2008) Economics of alien invasive species management — choices of targets and policies, Boreal Environ. Res. 13, 17–32.Google Scholar
  64. Gutrich J.J., VanGelder E., Loope L. (2007) Potential economic impact of introduction and spread of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, in Hawaii, Environ. Sci. Policy 10, 685–696.Google Scholar
  65. Harris R. (2005) Invasive ant risk assessment: ranking of high-risk species, available at:
  66. Hastings A., Hall R.J., Taylor C.M. (2006) A simple approach to optimal control of invasive species, Theor. Popul. Biol. 70, 431–435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Heal G., Kriström B. (2002) Uncertainty and climate change, Environ. Res. Econ. 22, 3–39.Google Scholar
  68. Heath S.E. (2006) Challenges and options for animal and public health services in the next two decades, Office International des Épizootics (OIE) Scientific and Technical Review 25, 403–419.Google Scholar
  69. Heikkil J., Pathogens, pests and weeds: risk classification principles and practices, unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  70. Heikkil J., Peltola J. (2007) Phytosanitary measures under uncertainty: a case study of Colorado potato beetle in Finland, in: Oude Lansink A.G.J.M. (Ed.), New approaches to the economics of plant health, Wageningen UR Frontis Series, Vol. 20, Springer.Google Scholar
  71. Heikkil J. Economics of invasive alien species: pre-emptive versus reactive control, Licentiate Thesis, MTT Discussion Papers 9/2006.Google Scholar
  72. Hennessy D.A. (2007) Biosecurity and spread of an infectious animal disease, Am. J. Agric. Econ. 89, 1226–1231.Google Scholar
  73. Higgins S.I., Turpie J.K., Constanza R., Cowling R.M., Le Maitre D.C., Marais C., Midgley G.F. (1997) An ecological economic simulation model of mountain fynbos ecosystems: dynamics, valuation and management, Ecol. Econ. 22, 155–169.Google Scholar
  74. Hilje L., Stansly P.A. (2008) Living ground covers for management of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and tomato yellow mottle virus (ToYMoV) in Costa Rica, Crop Prot. 27, 10–16.Google Scholar
  75. Horan R.D., Lupi F. (2005) Tradeable risk permits to prevent future introductions of invasive alien species into the Great Lakes, Ecol. Econ. 52, 289–304.Google Scholar
  76. Horan R.D., Perrings C., Lupi F., Bulte E.H. (2002) Biological pollution prevention strategies under ignorance: the case of invasive species, Am. J. Agric. Econ. 84, 1303–1310.Google Scholar
  77. Houben E.H.P., Huirne R.B.M., Dijkhuizen A.A., Kristensen A.R. (1994) Optimal replacement of mastitic cows determined by a hierarchic Markov process, J. Dairy Sci. 77, 2975–2993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Houe H. (2003) Economic impact of BVDV infection in dairies, Biologicals 31, 137–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Hundley K. (2007) Power plant: Is Arundo donax the answer to our power problems? St. Petersburg Times, 11 February 2007, available at:
  80. IMF (2006) The global economic and financial impact of an avian flu pandemic and the role of the IMF, Avian Flu Working Group.Google Scholar
  81. James A.D., Rushton J. (2002) The economics of foot and mouth disease, Office International des Épizootics (OIE) Scientific and Technical Review 21, 637–644.Google Scholar
  82. Jenkins P. (2001) Who should pay? Economic dimensions of preventing harmful invasions through international trade and travel, in: McNeely J.A. (Ed.), 2001. The great reshuffling: human dimensions of invasive alien species, IUCN.Google Scholar
  83. Jensen H.H., Unnevehr L.J., Gómez M.I. (1998) Costs of improving food safety in the meat sector, J. Agric. Appl. Econ. 30, 83–94.Google Scholar
  84. Jensen R. (2002) Economic policy for invasive species, Working Paper, available online at
  85. Johansson R., Livingston M., Westra J., Guidry K. (2005) Preliminary estimates of U.S. economic and environmental effects of treating and adjusting to Asian soybean rust, Presentation at Northeasters Agricultural and Resource Economics Association’s Economics of Invasive Species workshop, Annapolis, Maryland, 14–15 June 2005.Google Scholar
  86. Jones K.R., Corona J.P. (2008) An ambient tax approach to invasive species, Ecol. Econ. 64, 534–541.Google Scholar
  87. Keller R.P., Lodge D.M., Finnoff D.C. (2007) Risk assessment for invasive species produces net bioeconomic benefits, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 104, 203–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Kim C.S., Lubowski R., Lewandrowski J. (2005) Prevention or control? Optimal government policies for invasive species management, A paper presented at the Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association’s (NAREA) workshop on Invasive Species, Annapolis, Maryland, 14–15 June 2005, available online at:
  89. Klinkenberg D., Nielen M., Mourits M.C.M., de Jong M.C.M. (2005) The effectiveness of classical swine fever surveillance programmes in The Netherlands, Prev. Vet. Med. 67, 19–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Knowler D. (2005) Reassessing the costs of biological invasion: Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Black sea, Ecol. Econ. 52, 187–199.Google Scholar
  91. Knowler D., Barbier E.B. (2000) The economics of an invading species: a theoretical model and case study application, in: Perrings C., Williamson M., Dalmazzone S. (Eds.), 2000. The economics of biological invasions, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.Google Scholar
  92. Knowler D., Barbier E. (2005) Importing exotic plants and the risk of invasion: are market-based instruments adequate? Ecol. Econ. 52, 341–354.Google Scholar
  93. Kobayashi M., Carpenter T.E., Dickey B.F., Howitt R.E. (2007) A dynamic, optimal disease control model for foot-and-mouth disease: I. Model description, Prev. Vet. Med. 79, 257–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Leung B., Lodge D.M., Finnoff D., Shogren J.F., Lewis M.A., Lamberti G. (2002) An ounce of prevention or a pound of cure: bioeconomic risk analysis of invasive species, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 269, 2407–2413.Google Scholar
  95. Lichtenberg E., Penn T.M. (2003) Prevention versus treatment under precautionary regulation: a case study of groundwater contamination under uncertainty, Am. J. Agric. Econ. 85, 44–58.Google Scholar
  96. MacLeod A., Baker R.H.A., Cannon R.J.C. (2005) Costs and benefits of European Community (EC) measures against invasive alien species — current and future impacts of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera in England & Wales, A paper prepared for symposium on Introduction and Spread of Invasive Species, 9–11 June 2005, Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
  97. MacLeod A., Evans H.F., Baker R.H.A. (2002) An analysis of pest risk from an Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) to hardwood trees in the European community, Crop Prot. 21, 635–645.Google Scholar
  98. Mahul O., Gohin A. (1999) Irreversible decision making in contagious animal disease control under uncertainty: an illustration using FMD in Brittany, Eur. Rev. Agric. Econ. 26, 39–58.Google Scholar
  99. Maijala R., Ranta J., Seuna E., Peltola J. (2005) The efficiency of the Finnish salmonella control programme, Food Control, 16, 669–675.Google Scholar
  100. Mangen M.-J.J., Burrell A.M. (2003) Who gains, who loses? Welfare effects of classical swine fever epidemics in the Netherlands, Eur. Rev. Agric. Econ. 30, 125–154.Google Scholar
  101. Mangen M.-J.J., Jalvingh A.W., Nielen M., Mourits M.C.M., Klinkenberg D., Dijkhuizen A.A. (2001) Spatial and stochastic simulation to compare two emergency-vaccination strategies with a marker vaccine in the 1997/8 Dutch classical swine fever epidemic, Prev. Vet. Med. 48, 177–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Mangen M.-J.J., Nielen M., Burrell A.M. (2002) Simulated effect of pigpopulation density on epidemic size and choice of control strategy for classical swine fever epidemics in The Netherlands, Prev. Vet. Med. 56, 141–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Margolis M., Shogren J.F., Fischer C. (2005) How trade policies affect invasive species control, Ecol. Econ. 52, 305–313.Google Scholar
  104. Martin P. (2003) Killing us softly — Australia’s green stalkers: a call to action on invasive plants, and a way forward, CRC for Australian Weed Management.Google Scholar
  105. McAusland C., Costello C. (2004) Avoiding invasives: trade-related policies for controlling unintentional exotic species introductions, J. Environ. Econ. Manage. 48, 954–977.Google Scholar
  106. McInerney J., Kooij D. (1997) Economic analysis of alternative AD control programmes, Vet. Microbiol. 55, 113–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. McInerney J.P., Howe K.S., Schepers J.A. (1992) A framework for the economic analysis of disease in farm livestock, Prev. Vet. Med. 13, 137–154.Google Scholar
  108. McKee G.J., Goodhue R.E., Zalom F.G., Carter C.A., Chalfant J.A. (2008) Population dynamics and the economics of invasive species management: the greenhouse whitefly in California-grown strawberries, J. Environ. Manage. (in press).Google Scholar
  109. McKenzie J., Simpson H., Langstaff I. (2007) Development of methodology to prioritise wildlife pathogens for surveillance, Prev. Vet.Med. 81, 194–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Mehta S.V., Haight R.G., Homans F.R., Polasky S., Venette R.C. (2007) Optimal detection and control strategies for invasive species management, Ecol. Econ. 61, 237–245.Google Scholar
  111. Moffitt L.J., Osteen G.D. (2006) Prioritizing invasive species threats under uncertainty, Agric. Res. Econ. Rev. 35, 41–51.Google Scholar
  112. Moffitt L.J., Stranlund J.K., Field B.C., Osteen C.D. (2008) Robust inspection for invasive species with a limited budget, J. Environ. Manage. 89, 293–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Mort M., Convery I., Baxter J., Bailey C. (2005) Psychosocial effects of the 2001 UK foot and mouth disease epidemic in a rural population: qualitative diary based study, BMJ, DOI: 10.1136/bmj.38603.375856.68 (published 7 October 2005).Google Scholar
  114. Mukhebi A.W., Chamboko T., O’Callaghan C.J., Peter T.F., Kruska R.L., Medley G.F., Mahan S.M., Perry B.D. (1999) An assessment of the economic impact of heartwater (Cowdria ruminantium infection) and its control in Zimbabwe, Prev. Vet. Med. 39, 173–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Mumford J.D. (2002) Economic issues related to quarantine in international trade, Eur. Rev. Agric. Econ. 29, 329–348.Google Scholar
  116. Mumford J.D., Temple M.L., Quinlan M.M., Gladders P., Blood-Smyth J.A., Mourato S.M., Makuch Z., Crabb R.J. (2000) Economic policy evaluation of MAFF’s Plant Health Programme. Report to Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food, London, United Kingdom, available at:
  117. Niemi J.K., Pietola K. (2004) Pigmeat producer incentives and moral hazard under contagious animal disease restrictions, Paper presented at 86th EAAE Seminar Farm income stabilisation: what role should public policy play? Anacapri.Google Scholar
  118. Niemi J.K., Lehtonen H., Pietola K., Lyytikäinen T., Raulo S. (2008) Simulated financial losses of classical swine fever epidemics in the Finnish pig production sector, Prev. Vet. Med. 84, 194–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Olson L.J. (2006) The economics of terrestrial invasive species: a review of the literature, Am. J. Agric. Econ. 35, 178–194.Google Scholar
  120. Olson L.J., Roy S. (2002) The economics of controlling a stochastic biological invasion, Am. J. Agric. Econ. 84, 1311–1316.Google Scholar
  121. Otsuki T., Wilson J.S., Sewadeh M. (2001) Saving two in a billion: a case study to quantify the trade effect of European food safety standards on African exports, Food Policy 26, 495–514.Google Scholar
  122. Oude Lansink A.G.J.M. (2007) New approaches to the economics of plant health, Wageningen UR Frontis Series, Vol. 20, Springer.Google Scholar
  123. Paarlberg P., Lee J. (1998) Import restrictions in the presence of a health risk: an illustration using FMD, Am. J. Agric. Econ. 80, 175–183Google Scholar
  124. Paarlberg P.L., Hillberg Seitzinger A., Lee J.G. (2007) Economic impacts of regionalization of a highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in the United States, J. Agric. Appl. Econ. 39, 325–333.Google Scholar
  125. Parker C., Caton B.P., Fowler L. (2007) Ranking nonindigenous weed species by their potential to invade the United States, Weed Sci. 55, 386–397.Google Scholar
  126. Peeler E.J., Murray A.G., Thebault A., Brun E., Giovaninni A., Thrush M.A. (2007) The application of risk analysis in aquatic animal health management, Prev. Vet. Med. 81, 3–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Perrault A., Carroll Muffett W. (2001) Encouraging prevention, developing capacity and providing accountability: a strategy for addressing international invasive alien species issues, Center for International Environmental Law Discussion Paper, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  128. Perrings C. (2000) The economics of biological invasions, in: Preston G., Brown A.G., van Wyk E. (Eds.), 2000. Best Management Practices for Preventing and Controlling Invasive Alien Species, Symposium Proceedings, Cape Town, South Africa: Working for Water Programme.Google Scholar
  129. Perrings C. (2005) Mitigation and adaptation strategies for the control of biological invasions, Ecol. Econ. 52, 315–325.Google Scholar
  130. Perrings C., Williamson M., Dalmazzone S. (2000) The economics of biological invasions, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.Google Scholar
  131. Perry B.D., Randolph T.F. (1999) Improving the assessment of the economic impacts of parasitic diseases and of their control in production animals, Vet. Parasitol. 84, 145–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Persson U., Jendteg S. (1992) The economic impact of poultry-borne salmonellosis: how much should be spent on prophylaxis? Int. J. Food Microbiol. 15, 207–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Pifafi B.A., Rousmasset J.A. (2007) Some resource economics of invasive species, A paper presented at the 15th Annual Conference of the European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists (EAERE), 27–30 June 2007, Thessaloniki, Greece.Google Scholar
  134. Pimentel D., Lach L., Zuniga R., Morrison D. (1999) Environmental and economic costs associated with non-indigenous species in the United States,
  135. Pimentel D., McNair S., Janecka J., Wightman J., Simmonds C., O’Connell C., Wong E., Russel L., Zern J., Aquino T., Tsomondo T. (2001) Economic and environmental threats of alien plant, animal, and microbe invasions, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 84, 1–20.Google Scholar
  136. Pimentel D., Zuniga R., Morrison D. (2005) Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with alien-invasive species in the United States, Ecol. Econ. 52, 273–288.Google Scholar
  137. Powell M., Scott A., Ebel E. (2008) Analyzing BSE surveillance in low prevalence countries, Prev. Vet. Med. 83, 337–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Prattley D.J., Morris R.S., Stevenson M.A., Thornton R. (2007) Application of portfolio theory to risk-based allocation of surveillance resources in animal populations, Prev. Vet. Med. 81, 56–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Pysek P., Richardson D.M., Pergl J., Jarosik V., Sixtová Z., Weber E. (2008) Geographical and taxonomic biases in invasion ecology, Trends Ecol. Evol. 23, 237–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Ranjan R., Marshall E., Shortle J. (2008) Optimal renewable resource management in the presence of endogenous risk of invasion, J. Environ. Manage. 89, 273–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Reinhardt F., Herle M., Bastiansen F., Streit B. (2003) Economic impact of the spread of alien species in Germany, German Federal Environmental Agency report number 80/2003.Google Scholar
  142. Renn O. (2006) Risk governance: towards an integrative approach, White Paper No. 1, International Risk Governance Council, Geneva.Google Scholar
  143. Rich K.M., Winter-Nelson A. (2007) An integrated epidemiologicaleconomic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease: applications to the Southern Cone of South America, Am. J. Agric. Econ. 89, 682–697.Google Scholar
  144. Roberts T. (1989) Human illness costs of foodborne bacteria, Am. J. Agric. Econ. 71, 468–474.Google Scholar
  145. Rosengren H., Heikkil J. (2009) Risk-based classification of animal diseases: the case of poultry, A poster presented at the 12th International Symposium on Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics (ISVEE XII), 10–14 August 2009, Durban, South Africa.Google Scholar
  146. Ross J.V., Pollett P.K. (2007) On costs and decisions in population management, Ecol. Model. 201, 60–66.Google Scholar
  147. Rossides S.C. (2002) A farming perspective on the 2001 foot and mouth disease epidemic in the United Kingdom, Office International des Épizootics (OIE) Scientific and Technical Review 21, 831–838.Google Scholar
  148. Rushton J., Upton M. (2006) Investment in preventing and preparing for biological emergencies and disasters: Social and economic costs of disasters versus costs of surveillance and response preparedness, Office International des Épizootics (OIE) Scientific and Technical Review 25, 378–388.Google Scholar
  149. Russell J., Choquenot D., Clout M., Beggs J. (2006) Developing a framework for prioritising pest management policy, Report prepared for the Auckland Regional Council, Centre for Biodiversity and Biosecurity, Auckland.Google Scholar
  150. Saatkamp H.W., Berentsen P.B.M., Horst H.S. (2000) Economic aspects of the control of classical swine fever outbreaks in the European Union, Vet. Microbiol. 73, 221–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Saatkamp H.W., Dijkhuizen A.A., Geers R., Huirne R.B.M., Noordhuizen J.P.T.M., Goedseels V. (1997) Economic evaluation of national identification and recording systems for pigs in Belgium, Prev. Vet. Med. 30, 121–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Schmitz D.C., Simberloff D. (1997) Biological invasions: a growing threat, Issues in Science and Technology 13, 33–40.Google Scholar
  153. Schoenbaum M.A., Disney W.T. (2003) Modeling alternative mitigation strategies for a hypothetical outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the United States, Prev. Vet. Med. 58, 25–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Schrader G., Unger J.-G. (2003) Plant quarantine as a measure against invasive alien species: the framework of the International Plant Protection Convention and the plant health regulations in the European Union, Biol. Invasions 5, 357–364.Google Scholar
  155. Sharov A.A. (2004) Bioeconomics of managing the spread of exotic pest species with barrier zones, Risk Analysis 24, 879–892.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Sharov A.A., Liebhold A.M. (1998) Bioeconomics of managing the spread of exotic pest species with barrier zones, Ecol. Appl. 8, 833–845.Google Scholar
  157. Shine C., Williams N., Gündling L. (2000) A guide to designing legal and institutional frameworks on alien invasive species, Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 40, Environmental Law Centre, The World Conservation Union.Google Scholar
  158. Shogren J.F. (2000) Risk reduction strategies against the ‘explosive invader’, in: Perrings C., Williamson M., Dalmazzone S. (Eds.), 2000. The economics of biological invasions, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 249 p.Google Scholar
  159. Shortle J.S. (2007) Economic incentives for managing infectious animal disease: discussion, Am. J. Agric. Econ. 89, 1239–1240.Google Scholar
  160. Siekkinen K.-M., Heikkil J., Tammiranta N., Rosengren H. (2008) The costs of biosecurity at the farm level: the case of Finnish broiler, A poster presented at the 12th Congress of the European Association of Agricultural Economists (EAAE), 26–29 August 2008, Gent, Belgium.Google Scholar
  161. Simberloff D. (2003) How much information on population biology is needed to manage introduced species, Conserv. Biol. 17, 83–92.Google Scholar
  162. Smith C.S., Lonsdane W.M., Fortune J. (1999) When to ignore advice: invasion predictions and decision theory, Biol. Invasions, 1, 89–96.Google Scholar
  163. Sugiura K., Ito K., Yokoyama R., Kumagai S., Onodera T. (2003) A model to assess the risk of the introduction into Japan of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent through imported animals, meat and meat-and-bone meal, Office International des Épizootics (OIE), Scientific and Technical Review 22, 777–794.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Surkov I.V., Oude Lansink A.G.J.M., van Kooten O., van der Werf W. (2008) A model of optimal import phytosanitary inspection under capacity constraint, Agric. Econ. 38, 363–373.Google Scholar
  165. Sutmoller P., Casas Olascoaga R. (2003) The risks posed by the importation of animals vaccinated against foot and mouth disease and products derived from vaccinated animals: a review, Office International des Épizootics (OIE) Scientific and Technical Review 22, 823–835.Google Scholar
  166. Taylor C.M., Hastings A. (2004) Finding optimal control strategies for invasive species: a density-structured model for Spartina alterniflora, J. Appl. Ecol. 41, 1049–1057.Google Scholar
  167. Tu A.T., Beghin J., Gozlan E. (2008) Tariff escalation and invasive species damages, Ecol. Econ. 67, 619–629.Google Scholar
  168. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (1993) Harmful nonindigenous species in the United States, OTA-F-565, Washington DC, available online at
  169. Valeeva N.I., Huirne R.B.M., Meuwissen M.P.M., Oude Lansink A.G.J.M. (2007) Modeling farm-level strategies for improving food safety in the dairy chain, Agric. Syst. 94, 528–540.Google Scholar
  170. Valeeva N.I., Meuwissen M., Oude Lansink A., Huirne R. (2006) Cost implications of improving food safety in the Dutch dairy chain, Eur. Rev. Agric. Econ. 33, 511–541.Google Scholar
  171. van der Gaag M.A., Saatkamp H.W., Backus G.B.C., van Beek P., Huirne R.B.M. (2004) Cost-effectiveness of controlling Salmonella in the pork chain, Food Control 15, 173–180.Google Scholar
  172. Virtue J. (2007) Weed Risk Management in South Australia. Presentation at International Weed Risk Assessment Workshop (IWRAW) 2007, Perth (WA), Australia, 14–15 September 2007.Google Scholar
  173. Waage J.K., Mumford J.D. (2008) Agricultural biosecurity, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 363, 863–876.Google Scholar
  174. Waage J.K., Fraser R.W., Mumford J.D., Cook D.C., Wilby A. (2005) A new agenda for biosecurity, Faculty of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, London.Google Scholar
  175. Weber E., Gut D. (2004) Assessing the risk of potentially invasive plant species in central Europe, J. Nature Conserv. 12, 171–179.Google Scholar
  176. Weigle S.M., Smith L.D., Carlton J.T., Pederson J. (2005) Assessing the risk of introducing exotic species via the live marine species trade, Conserv. Biol. 19, 213–223.Google Scholar
  177. WHO (2007) Food safety and foodborne illness, Fact sheet Number 237, Reviewed March 2007.Google Scholar
  178. Wolfe N.D., Panosian Dunavan C., Diamond J. (2007) Origins of major human infectious diseases, Nature 447, 279–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Wooldridge M., Hartnett E., Cox A., Seaman M. (2006) Quantitative risk assessment case study: smuggled meats as disease vectors, Office International des Épizootics (OIE) Scientific and Technical Review 25, 105–117.Google Scholar
  180. Work T.T., McGullough D.G., Cavey J.F., Komsa R. (2005) Arrival rate of nonindigenous insect species into the United States through foreign trade, Biol. Invasions 7, 323–332.Google Scholar
  181. Xu H., Ding H., Li M., Qiang S., Guo J., Han Z., Huang Z., Sun H., He S., Wu H., Wan F. (2006) The distribution and economic losses of alien species invasion to China, Biol. Invasions 8, 1495–1500.Google Scholar
  182. Zavaleta E. (2000) The economic value of controlling an invasive shrub, Ambio 29, 462–467.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© INRA and Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MTT Economic ResearchHelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations