Ecological Research

, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 33–46 | Cite as

Seed dormancy/germination traits of seven Persicaria species and their implication in soil seed-bank strategy

Original Articles

In order to predict species-specific potential to form persistent soil seed-banks and to characterize the dynamics of their seed-banks, the seed dormancy/germination traits of seven Persicaria (Polygonum s.lat.) species sharing lakeshore habitats in central Japan were examined. Strict light requirements for seed germination were not observed in any of the species examined. Although all species required moist chilling (0–6 weeks) to break seed dormancy and were sensitive to temperature fluctuation, the degree of both responses varied between species. Seed germination of Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Spach, Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) S.F. Gray, and Persicaria longiseta (De Bruyn) Kitag. was more accelerated by temperature fluctuation and required shorter chilling periods compared with Persicaria japonica (Meisn.) H. Gross, Persicaria maackiana (Regel) Nakai, Persicaria thunbergii (Sieb. et Zucc.) H. Gross, and Persicaria sieboldi (Maisn.) Onki. Secondary dormancy was induced in all species at higher temperatures (24 and 30°C). A persistent seed-bank strategy suggested by the dormancy/germination traits of the studied species was also demonstrated by seedling emergence from surface soils collected from the natural habitat immediately before seed dispersal, as well as by viable seed persistence for 13 months in the field in a seed burial experiment. In the natural habitat, the species with longer chilling requirements occurred in various microhabitats, including the interior of moist tall grasslands, whereas the species having higher sensitivity to temperature fluctuation were most frequently found in sparsely vegetated microhabitats.

Key words

distribution pattern dormancy/germination gap moist chilling soil seed-bank 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Araki S., Shiozawa S., Washitani I. (1998) An experimental device for studying seed responses to naturally fluctuating temperature of surface soil under a constant water table. Functional Ecology 12: 492–499.Google Scholar
  2. Baskin J. M. & Baskin C. C. (1985) The annual dormancy cycle in buried weed seeds: A continuum. BioScience 35: 492–498.Google Scholar
  3. Bertiller M. B. (1996) Grazing effects on sustainable semiarid rangelands in Patagonia: The state and dynamics of the soil seed-bank. Environmental Management 20: 123–132.Google Scholar
  4. Bewley J. D. & Black M. (1982) Physiology and Biochemistry of Seeds in Relation to Germination. 2. Viability, Dormancy and Environmental Control. Springer–Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  5. Bungard R. A., Daly G. T., McNeil D. L., Jones A. V. (1997) Clematis vitalba in a New Zealand native forest remnant: Does seed germination explain distribution? New Zealand Journal of Botany 35: 525–534.Google Scholar
  6. Fenner M. (1985) Seed Ecology. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  7. Ghersa C. M., Benech R. L., Martinez-Ghersa M. A. (1992) The role of fluctuating temperatures in germination and establishment of Sorghum halepense. Regulation of germination at increasing depths. Functional Ecology 6: 460–468.Google Scholar
  8. Grime J. P. (1979) Regenerative strategies. In: Plant Strategies and Vegetation Processes (ed. J. P. Grime) pp. 79–119. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.Google Scholar
  9. Grime J. P., Mason G., Curtis A. V. et al. (1981) A comparative study of germination characteristics in a local flora. Journal of Ecology 69: 1017–1059.Google Scholar
  10. Harper J. L. (1977) The seed-bank. In: Population Biology of Plants (ed. J. L. Harper) pp. 83–110. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  11. Hill N. M., Patriquin D. G., vander Kloet S. P. (1989) Weed seed-bank and vegetation at the beginning and end of the first cycle of a four-course crop rotation with minimal weed control. Journal of Applied Ecology 26: 233–246.Google Scholar
  12. Hogenbirk J. C. & Wein R. W. (1992) Temperature effects on seedling emergence from boreal wetland soils: Implications for climate change. Aquatic Botany 42: 361–373.Google Scholar
  13. Justice O. L. (1941) A study of dormancy in seeds of Polygonum. Memoir/Cornell University, Agricultural Experiment Station, Ithaca, New York 235: 3–43.Google Scholar
  14. Kjær A. (1940) Germination of buried and dry stored seeds. I. 1934–1939. Proceedings of the International Seed Testing Association 12: 167–190.Google Scholar
  15. Leck M. A. (1989) Wetland Seed banks. In: Ecology of Soil Seed Banks (eds M. A. Leck, V. T. Parker & R. L. Simpson) pp. 283–305. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  16. Nishihiro J. & Washitani I. (1998) Effect of population spatial structure on pollination and seed set of a clonal distylous plant, Persicaria japonica (Polygonaceae). Journal of Plant Research 111: 547–555.Google Scholar
  17. Numata M. & Yoshizawa N. (1975) Weed flora of Japan illustrated by colour. Zenkoku Noson Kyoiku Kyokai, Tokyo (in Japanese with English comments).Google Scholar
  18. Pavlik B. M., Ferguson N., Nelson M. (1993) Assessing limitations on the growth of endangered plant populations, II. Seed production and seed-bank dynamics of Erysimum capitatum ssp. Angustatum and Oenothera deltoides ssp. Howellii. Biological Conservation 65: 267–278.Google Scholar
  19. Rees M. (1997) Seed dormancy. In: Plant Ecology (ed. M. J. Crawley) pp. 214–238. Blackwell Science, Oxford.Google Scholar
  20. Roberts E. H. & Totterdell S. (1981) Seed dormancy in Rumex species in response to environmental factors. Plant, Cell and Environment 4: 97–106.Google Scholar
  21. Salisbury E. J. (1942) The Reproductive Capacity of Plants. Bell, London.Google Scholar
  22. Silvertown J. W. & Lovett Doust J. (1993) Population dynamics. In: Introduction to Plant Population Biology (eds J. W. Silvertown & J. Lovett Doust) pp. 72–92. Blackwell Science, Oxford.Google Scholar
  23. Simpson R. L., Leck M. A., Parker V. T. (1989) Seed banks: General concepts and methodological issues. In: Ecology of Soil Seed Banks (eds M. A. Leck, V. T. Parker & R. L. Simpson) pp. 3–8. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  24. Sokal R. R. & Rohlf F. J. (1995) Biometry, 3rd edn. W. H. Freeman, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Staniforth R. J. & Cavers P. B. (1979) Field and laboratory germination responses of achenes of Polygonum lapathifolium, P. pensylvanicum, and P. persicaria. Canadian Journal of Botany 57: 877–885.Google Scholar
  26. Sultan S. E., Wilczek A. M., Bell D. L., Hand G. (1998a) Physiological response to complex environments in annual Polygonum species of contrasting ecological breadth. Oecologia 115: 564–578.Google Scholar
  27. Sultan S. E., Wilczek A. M., Hann S. D., Brosi B. J. (1998b) Contrasting ecological breadth of co-occurring annual Polygonum species. Journal of Ecology 86: 363–383.Google Scholar
  28. Tacey W. H. & Glossop B. L. (1980) Assessment of topsoil handling techniques for rehabilitation of sites mined for bauxite within the jarrah forest of western Australia. Journal of Applied Ecology 17: 195–201.Google Scholar
  29. Thompson K. & Grime J. P. (1979) Seasonal variation in the seed-banks of herbaceous species in ten contrasting habitats. Journal of Ecology 67: 893–921.Google Scholar
  30. Thompson K., Grime J. P., Mason G. (1977) Seed germination in response to diurnal fluctuations of temperature. Nature 267: 147–149.Google Scholar
  31. van der Valk A. G. (1981) Succession in wetlands: A Gleasonian approach. Ecology 62: 688–696.Google Scholar
  32. van der Valk A. G. & Davis C. B. (1978) The role of seed-banks in the vegetation dynamics of prairie glacial marshes. Ecology 59: 322–335.Google Scholar
  33. Washitani I. (1985) Field fate of Amaranthus patulus seeds subjected to leaf-canopy inhibition of germination. Oecologia 66: 338–342.Google Scholar
  34. Washitani I. & Masuda M. (1990) A comparative study of the germination characteristics of seeds from a moist tall grassland community. Functional Ecology 4: 543–557.Google Scholar
  35. Washitani I., Takenaka A., Kuramoto N., Inoue K. (1997) Aster kantoensis Kitam., an endangered flood plain endemic plant in Japan: Its ability to form persistent soil seed-banks. Biological Conservation 82: 67–72.Google Scholar
  36. Watanabe Y. & Hirokawa F. (1967) Autoecological studies on the annual weeds in Tokachi, 1. The seasonal periodicity in emergence. Research Bulletin of Hokkaido National Agricultural Experiment Station 91: 31–40 (in Japanese with English summary).Google Scholar
  37. Yabuki K. & Miyagawa I. (1959) Studies on the effects of diurnal variation of temperature upon the germination of seeds. (3) The germination of weeds and the condiment crops. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology 15: 49–54 (in Japanese with English summary).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Blackwell Science Asia Pty. Ltd. 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Biological SciencesUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Agricultural and Life SciencesThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations