Journal of General Internal Medicine

, Volume 18, Issue 8, pp 670–674

What is clinical empathy?


DOI: 10.1046/j.1525-1497.2003.21017.x

Cite this article as:
Halpern, J. J GEN INTERN MED (2003) 18: 670. doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.2003.21017.x


Patients seek empathy from their physicians. Medical educators increasingly recognize this need. Yet in seeking to make empathy a reliable professional skill, doctors change the meaning of the term. Outside the field of medicine, empathy is a mode of understanding that specifically involves emotional resonance. In contrast, leading physician educators define empathy as a form of detached cognition. In contrast, this article argues that physicians’ emotional attunement greatly serves the cognitive goal of understanding patients’ emotions. This has important implications for teaching empathy.

Copyright information

© Society of General Internal Medicine 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Health and Medical SciencesUniversity of California-BerkeleyBerkeley

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