Advertisement

Ecological Research

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 599–609 | Cite as

Restricted seed contribution and clonal dominance in a free-floating aquatic plant Utricularia australis R. Br. in southwestern Japan

  • Satoru Araki
  • Yasuro Kadono
Original Articles

Utricularia australis R. Br. is an aquatic angiosperm species common in natural and irrigation ponds in temperate regions. This species reproduces both sexually and vegetatively, but in southwestern Japan the occurrence of male-sterile populations, in which plants produce no pollen and propagate only vegetatively, has been recorded. We studied the reproductive contribution of seeds in normal pollen-producing populations using isozyme analyses, a pollination experiment under culture and field observations. Although seedlings obtained from controlled mating indicated segregation of isozyme, polymorphism of the isozyme genotype was detected mainly among populations, but rarely within each pond population. This suggested clonal dominance and rarity of seed or seedling survival in natural populations. In the pollination experiment, the mean seed set ratio in cross-pollination between plants of the same isozyme genotype (7.6%) did not differ significantly from self-pollination (7.6%), but was lower than cross-pollination between plants of different genotypes (45.7%). The low ratio in crossing between the same genotype plants was ascribed to the clonality of the parents. In general, these results corresponded with the low ratios in seed setting observed in natural populations (7.9–13.7%). All the male-sterile populations we surveyed showed the same genotype, thus male sterility in the study area was considered to have the same origin.

Key words

isozyme male sterility sexual reproduction Utricularia australis vegetative reproduction 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Araki S. (2000) Isozyme differentiation between two infraspecies taxa of Utricularia australis R. Br. (Lentibulariaceae) in Japan. Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 51: 31–36.Google Scholar
  2. Barrat-Segretain M. (1996) Germination and colonisation dynamics of Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm. in a former river channel. Aquatic Botany 55: 31–38.Google Scholar
  3. Barrett S. C. H. (1980) Sexual reproduction in Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth). II. Seed production in natural populations. Journal of Applied Ecology 17: 113–124.Google Scholar
  4. Barrett S. C. H., Eckert C. G. & Husbund B. C. (1993) Evolutionary processes in aquatic plant populations. Aquatic Botany 44: 105–145.Google Scholar
  5. Cook C. D. K. (1990) Seed dispersal of Nymphoides peltata. Aquatic Botany 37: 325–340.Google Scholar
  6. Eckert C. G. (2002) Loss of sex in clonal plants. Evolutionary Ecology 15: 501–520.Google Scholar
  7. Eckert C. G., Dorken M. E. & Mitchell S. A. (1999) Loss of sex in clonal populations of a flowering plant, Decodon ferticillatus (Lythraceae). Evolution 53: 1079–1092.Google Scholar
  8. Ellstrand N. C. & Roose M. L. (1987) Patterns of genotypic diversity in clonal plant species. American Journal of Botany 74: 123–131.Google Scholar
  9. Eriksson O. (1989) Seedling dynamics and life histories in clonal plants. Oikos 55: 231–238.Google Scholar
  10. Eriksson O. (1997) Clonal life histories and the evolution of seed recruitment. In: The Ecology and Evolution of Clonal Plants (eds H. De Kroon & J. Groenendael) pp. 211–226. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.Google Scholar
  11. Grace J. B. (1993) The adaptive significance of clonal reproduction in angiosperms: an aquatic perspective. Aquatic Botany 44: 159–180.Google Scholar
  12. Haring V., Gray J. E., McClure B. A., Anderson M. A. & Clarke A. E. (1990) Self-incompatibility: a self-recognition system in plants. Science 250: 937–941.Google Scholar
  13. Hedrick P. W. & Parker K. M. (1998) MHC variation in the endangered Gila topminnow. Evolution 52: 194–199.Google Scholar
  14. Hollingsworth P. M., Preston C. D. & Gornall R. J. (1996a) Isozyme evidence for the parentage and multiple origins of Potamogeton×suecicus (P. pectinatus×P. filliformis, Potamogetonaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 202: 219–232.Google Scholar
  15. Hollingsworth P. M., Preston C. D. & Gornall R. J. (1996b) Genetic variability in two hydrophilous species of Potamogeton, P. pectinatus and P. filiformis (Potamogetonaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 202: 233–254.Google Scholar
  16. Husband B. C. & Schemske D. W. (1996) Evolution of the magnitude and timing of inbreeding depression in plants. Evolution 50: 54–70.Google Scholar
  17. Imrie B. C., Kirkman C. J. & Ross D. R. (1972) Computer simulation of a sporophytic self-incompatibility breeding system. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 25: 343–349.Google Scholar
  18. Johnson M. & Black R. (1998) Increased genetic divergence and reduced genetic variation in populations of the snail Bembicium vittatum in isolated tidal ponds. Heredity 80: 163–172.Google Scholar
  19. Kadono Y. (1993) Lentibulariaceae. In: Flora of Japan, Volume IIIa (eds K. Iwatsuki, T. Yamazaki, D. E. Boufford & H. Ohba) pp. 400–404. Kodansha, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  20. Kadono Y. (1994) Aquatic Plants of Japan. Bun-ichi Sogo Shuppan, Tokyo (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  21. Klimes L., Klimesova J., Hendriks R. & Van Groenendael J. (1997) Clonal plant architecture: a comparative analysis of form and function. In: The Ecology and Evolution of Clonal Plants (eds H. De Kroon & J. Van Groenendael) pp. 1–29. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.Google Scholar
  22. Komiya S. & Shibata C. (1980) Distribution of the Lentibulariaceae in Japan. Bulletin of Nippon Dental University, General Education 9: 163–212.Google Scholar
  23. Lee H., Huang S. & Kao T. (1994) S proteins control rejection of incompatible pollen in Petunia inflata. Nature 367: 560–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Les D. H. (1988) Breeding systems, population structure, and evolution in hydrophilous angiosperms. Annals of Missouri Botanical Garden 75: 819–835.Google Scholar
  25. Les D. H. (1991) Genetic diversity in the monoecious hydrophile Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae). American Journal of Botany 78: 1070–1082.Google Scholar
  26. Mahy G. & Jacquemart A. (1998) Mating system of Calluna vulgaris: self-sterility and outcrossing estimations. Canadian Journal of Botany 76: 37–42.Google Scholar
  27. Makino T. (1914) Observations on the flora of Japan. The Botanical Magazine, Tokyo 28: 1–30.Google Scholar
  28. Manicacci D. & Barrett S. C. H. (1996) Fertility differences among floral morphs following selfing in tristylous Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae): inbreeding depression or partial incompatibility? American Journal of Botany 83: 594–603.Google Scholar
  29. Miki S. (1935) New water plants in Asia Orientalis III. The Botanical Magazine, Tokyo 49: 847–852.Google Scholar
  30. Muir A. M. (1995) The cost of reproduction to the clonal herb Asarum canadense (wild ginger). Canadian Journal of Botany 73: 1683–1686.Google Scholar
  31. Murfett J., Atherton T. L., Mou B., Gasser C. S. & McClure B. A. (1994) S-RNase expressed in transgenic Nicotiana causes S-allele-specific pollen rejection. Nature 367: 563–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nakamura T. & Kadono Y. (1993) Chromosome number and geographical distribution of monoecious and dioecious Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle. (Hydrocharitaceae) in Japan. Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 44: 123–140.Google Scholar
  33. Nakamura T., Suzuki T. & Kadono Y. (1998) A comparative study of isoenzyme patterns of Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle in Japan. Journal of Plant Research 111: 581–585.Google Scholar
  34. Reinartz J. A. & Les D. H. (1994) Bottleneck-induced dissolution of self-incompatibility and breeding system consequences in Aster furcatus (Asteraceae). American Journal of Botany 81: 446–455.Google Scholar
  35. Richmann A. D., Kao T., Schaeffer S. W. & Uyenoyama M. K. (1995) S-allele sequence diversity in natural populations of Solanum carolinense (Horsenettle). Heredity 75: 405–415.Google Scholar
  36. Schug M. D., Downhower J. F., Brown L. P., Sears D. B. & Fuerst P. A. (1998) Isolation and genetic diversity of Gambusia hubbsi (mosquitofish) populations in blueholes on Andros Island, Bahamas. Heredity 80: 336–346.Google Scholar
  37. Seavey S. R. & Bawa K. S. (1986) Late-acting self-incompatibility in angiosperms. Botanical Review 52: 195–219.Google Scholar
  38. Smolders A. J. P., Den Hartog C. & Roelofs J. G. M. (1995a) Observations on fruiting and seed-set of Stratiotes aloides L. in the Netherlands. Aquatic Botany 51: 259–268.Google Scholar
  39. Smolders A. J. P., Den Hartog C. & Roelofs J. G. M. (1995b) Germination and seedling development in Stratioites aloides L. Aquatic Botany 51: 269–279.Google Scholar
  40. Soltis D. E., Haufler C. H., Darrow D. C. & Gastony G. J. (1983) Starch gel electrophoresis of ferns: a compilation of grinding buffers, gel and electrode buffers, and staining schedules. American Fern Journal 73: 9–27.Google Scholar
  41. Tamura M. (1981) Lentibulariaceae. In: Wild Flowers of Japan III (eds Y. Satake, J. Ohwi, S. Kitamura, S. Watari & T. Tominari) pp. 137–139. Heibonsha, Tokyo (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  42. Taylor P. (1989) The Genus Utricularia: A Taxonomic Monograph. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London.Google Scholar
  43. Van Wijk R. J. (1988) Ecological studies on Potamogeton pectinatus L. I. General characteristics, biomass production and life cycles under field conditions. Aquatic Botany 31: 211–258.Google Scholar
  44. Van Wijk R. J. (1989) Ecological studies on Potamogeton pectinatus L. III. Reproductive strategies and germination ecology. Aquatic Botany 33: 271–299.Google Scholar
  45. Verburg R. W. & During H. (1998) Vegetative propagation and sexual reproduction in the woodland understorey pseudo-annual Circaea lutetiana L. Plant Ecology 134: 211–224.Google Scholar
  46. Verkleij J. A. C., Pieterse A. H., Horneman G. J. T. & Torenbeek M. (1983) Comparative study of the morphology and isoenzyme patterns of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle. Aquatic Botany 17: 43–59.Google Scholar
  47. Vivian-Smith G. & Stiles E. W. (1994) Dispersal of salt marsh seeds on the feet and feathers of waterfowl. Wetlands 14: 316–319.Google Scholar
  48. Waterway M. J. (1994) Evidence for the hybrid origin of Carex kunieskernii with comments on hybridization in the genus Carex (Cyperaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 72: 860–871.Google Scholar
  49. Weeden N. F. & Wendel J. F. (1989) Genetics of plant isozymes. In: Isozymes In Plant Biology (eds D. E. Soltis & P. S. Soltis), pp. 46–72. Dioscorides Press, Portland.Google Scholar
  50. Yamamoto I. & Kadono Y. (1988) Distribution of Utricularia vulgaris L. var japonica (Makino) Tamura and Utricularia tenuicaulis Miki in the southern part of Hyogo Prefecture, southwestern Japan. The Journal of Phytogeography and Taxonomy 36: 72–75 (in Japanese with English summary).Google Scholar
  51. Yamamoto I. & Kadono Y. (1990) A study on the reproductive biology of aquatic Utricularia species in southwestern Japan. Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 41: 189–200 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceKobe UniversityNadaKobeJapan
  2. 2.Research Center for Coastal Lagoon EnvironmentsShimane UniversityMatsueJapan

Personalised recommendations