Advertisement

Ecological Research

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 307–320 | Cite as

Importance of topography and soil texture in the spatial distribution of two sympatric dipterocarp trees in a Bornean rainforest

  • Akira Itoh
  • Takuo Yamakura
  • Tatsuhiro Ohkubo
  • Mamoru Kanzaki
  • Peter A. Palmiotto
  • James V. LaFrankie
  • Peter S. Ashton
  • Hua Seng Lee
Original Articles

Relationships between spatial distributions and site conditions, namely topography and soil texture, were analyzed for two congeneric emergent trees, Dryobalanops aromatica and Dryobalanops lanceolata (Dipterocarpaceae), in a tropical rainforest in Sarawak, East Malaysia. A 52-ha permanent plot was divided into 1300 quadrats measuring 20 m × 20 m; for each Dryobalanops species, the number and total basal area of trees ≥1 cm in d.b.h. were compared among groups of quadrats with different site conditions. Because spatial distributions of both Dryobalanops and site-condition variables were aggregated, Monte-Carlo permutation tests were applied to analyze the relationships. Both single and multifactor statistical tests showed that the density and basal area distributions of the two species were significantly non-random in relation to soil texture and topographic variables. D. aromatica was significantly more abundant at higher elevations, in sandy soils, and on convex and steep slopes. In contrast, D. lanceolata preferred lower elevations and less sandy soils. In the study plot, there were very few sites (3 of 1150 quadrats tested) where the models of Hayashi’s method predicted the co-occurrence of the two species. These results suggest that between-species differences in habitat preferences are so large that they alone explain the spatially segregated distributions of these two species within the 52-ha study plot.

Key words

Dipterocarpaceae Dryobalanops habitat spatial distribution tropical rainforest 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Ashton P. S. (1964) Ecological studies in the mixed dipterocarp forests of Brunei State. Oxford Forestry Memoir25.Google Scholar
  2. Ashton P. S. (1969) Speciation among tropical forest trees: some deductions in the light of recent evidence. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 1: 155–196.Google Scholar
  3. Ashton P. S. (1982) Dipterocarpaceae. Flora Malesiana. Series 1, Vol. 9. Martinus-Nijhoff Publishers, The Hague.Google Scholar
  4. Ashton P. S. & Hall P. (1992) Comparisons of structure among mixed dipterocarp forests of north-western Borneo. Journal of Ecology 80: 459–481.Google Scholar
  5. Baillie I. C. & Ahmed M. I. (1984) The variability of red yellow podozolic soils under mixed dipterocarp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Tropical Geography 9: 1–13.Google Scholar
  6. Baillie I. C., Ashton P. S., Court M. N., Anderson J. A. R., Fitzpatrick E. A., Tinsley J. (1987) Site characteristics and the distribution of tree species in mixed dipterocarp forest on tertiary sediments in central Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 3: 201–220.Google Scholar
  7. Basnet K. (1992) Effect of topography on the pattern of trees in Tabonuco (Dacryodes excelsa) dominated rain forest of Puerto Rico. Biotropica 24: 31–42.Google Scholar
  8. Besag J. & Diggle P. J. (1977) Simple Monte Carlo tests for spatial pattern. Applied Statistics 26: 327–333.Google Scholar
  9. Burslem D. F. R. P., Grubb P. J., Turner I. M. (1995) Responses to nutrient addition among shade-tolerant tree seedlings of lowland tropical rain forest in Singapore. Journal of Ecology 83: 113–122.Google Scholar
  10. Chan H. T. & Appanah S. (1980) Reproductive biology of some Malaysian dipterocarps I. Flowering biology. Malaysian Forester 43: 132–143.Google Scholar
  11. Clark D. B., Clark D. A., Read J. M. (1998) Edaphic variation and the mesoscale distribution of tree species in a neotropical rain forest. Journal of Ecology 86: 101–112.Google Scholar
  12. Clark D. B., Palmer M. W., Clark D. A. (1999) Edaphic factors and the landscape-scale distributions of tropical rain forest trees. Ecology 80: 2662–2675.Google Scholar
  13. Condit R., Ashton P. S., Baker P., Bunyavejchewin S., Gunatilleke S., Gunatilleke N., Hubbell S. P., Foster R. B., Itoh A., Lafrankie J. V., Lee H. S., Losos E., Manokaran N., Sukumar R., Yamakura T. (2000) Spatial patterns in the distribution of tropical tree species. Science 288: 1414–1418.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cliff A. D. & Ord J. K. (1981) Spatial Processes–Models and Applications. Pion Ltd, London.Google Scholar
  15. Davies S. J., Palmiotto P., Ashton P. S., Lee H. S., LaFrankie J. (1998) Comparative ecology of 11 sympatric species of Macaranga in Borneo: tree distribution in relation to horizontal and vertical resource heterogeneity. Journal of Ecology 86: 662–673.Google Scholar
  16. Gartlan J. S., Newbery D. M., Thomas D. W., Waterman P. G. (1986) The influence of topography and soil phosphorus on the vegetation of Korup Forest Reserve, Cameroon. Vegetatio 65: 131–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gunatilleke C. V. S., Gunatilleke I. A. U. N., Perera G. A. D., Burslem D. F. R. P., Ashton P. M. S., Ashton P. S. (1997) Responses to nutrient addition among seedlings of eight closely related species of Shorea in Sri Lanka. Journal of Ecology 85: 301–311.Google Scholar
  18. Harms K. E., Condit R., Hubbell S. P., Faster R. B. (2001) Habitat associations of trees and shrubs in a 50-ha neotropical forest plot. Journal of Ecology 89: 947–959.Google Scholar
  19. Hayashi C. (1952) On the quantification of qualitative data from the mathematico – statistical point of view. Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics 3: 69–98.Google Scholar
  20. Hirai H., Matsumira H., Hirotani H., Sakurai K., Ogino K., Lee H. S. (1997) Soils and the distribution of Dryobalanops aromatica and D. lanceolata in mixed dipterocarp forest – a case study at Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. Tropics 7: 21–33.Google Scholar
  21. Itoh A. (1995) Effects of forest floor environment on germination and seedling establishment of two Bornean rainforest emergent species. Journal of Tropical Ecology 11: 517–527.Google Scholar
  22. Itoh A., Yamakura T., Ogino K., Lee H. S. (1995b) Survivorship and growth of seedlings of four dipterocarp species in a tropical rain forest of Sarawak, East Malaysia. Ecological Research 10: 327–338.Google Scholar
  23. Itoh A., Yamakura T., Ogino K., Lee H. S., Ahston P. S. (1997) Spatial distribution patterns of two predominant emergent trees in a tropical rainforest in Sarawak Malaysia. Plant Ecology 132: 121–136.Google Scholar
  24. Itoh A., Yamakura T., Ogino K., Lee H. S., Ashton P. S. (1995a) Population structure and canopy dominance of two emergent dipterocarp species in a tropical rain forest of Sarawak, East Malaysia. Tropics 4: 133–141.Google Scholar
  25. Itoh A., Yamakura T., Ohkubo T., Kanzaki M., Palmiotto P., Tan S., Lee H. S. Spatially aggregated fruiting in an emergent Bornean tree. Journal of Tropical Ecology (in press).Google Scholar
  26. Kachi N., Okuda T., Yap S. K. (1993) Seedling establishment of a canopy tree species in Malaysian tropical rain forests. Plant Species Biology 8: 167–174.Google Scholar
  27. Kimmins J. P. (1987) Forest Ecology. Macmillan Publishers Co, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  28. Kitanidis P. K. (1997) Introduction to Geostatistics: Applications to Hydrogeology. Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Lathman R. E. (1992) Co-occurring tree species change rank in seedling performance with resources varied experimentally. Ecology 73: 2129–2144.Google Scholar
  30. Lee H. S., Davies S., LaFrankie J. V., Tan S., Yamakura T., Itoh A., Ohkubo T., Ashton P. S. (2002) Floristic and structural diversity of mixed dipterocarp forest in Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 14: 379–400.Google Scholar
  31. Legendre P. (1993) Spatial autocorrelation: trouble or new paradigm? Ecology 74: 1659–1673.Google Scholar
  32. Mulock Houwer J. A. (1968) Riam road section, Lambir Hills, Sarawak. In: Geological Survey Borneo Region, Malaysia, Bulletin 9, Geological Papers 1967 (eds P. Collenette & J. Goh), pp. 38–42. Government Printer, Kuching.Google Scholar
  33. Newbery D. Mc C., Campbell E. J. F., Proctor J., Still M. J. (1996) Primary lowland dipterocarp forest at Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia. Species composition and patterns in the understorey. Vegetatio 122: 193–220.Google Scholar
  34. Oliveira-Filho A. T., Vilela E. A., Carvlho D. A., Gavilanes M. L. (1994) Effects of soils and topography on the distribution of tree species in a tropical riverine forest in south-eastern Brazil. Journal of Tropical Ecology 10: 483–508.Google Scholar
  35. Palmiotto P. A. (1998) The role of specialization in nutrient-use efficiency as a mechanism driving species diversity in a tropical rain forest. Doctor of Forestry Dissertation, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA (unpubl.).Google Scholar
  36. Phillips J. D. (1985) Measuring complexity of environmental gradients. Vegetatio 64: 95–102.Google Scholar
  37. Plotkin J. B., Potts M. D., Leslie N., Manokaran N., LaFranki J., Ashton P. S. (2000) Species-area curves, spatial aggregation, and habitat specialization in tropical forests. Journal of Theoretical Biology 207: 81–99.Google Scholar
  38. Poulsen A. D. (1996) Species richness and density of ground herbs within a plot of lowland rainforest in north-west Borneo. Journal of Tropical Ecology 12: 177–190.Google Scholar
  39. Richards P. W. (1952) The Tropical Rain Forest. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  40. Robertson G. P. (1987) Geostatistics in ecology: interpolating with known variance. Ecology 68: 747–748.Google Scholar
  41. Rogstad S. H. (1989) The biosystematics and evolution of the Polyalthia hypoleuca species complex (Annonaceae) of Malesia. I. Systematic treatment. Journal of Arnold Arboretum 70: 153–246.Google Scholar
  42. Rogstad S. H. (1990) The biosystematics and evolution of the Polyalthia hypoleuca species complex (Annonaceae) of Malesia. II. Comparative distributional ecology. Journal of Tropical Ecology 6: 387–408.Google Scholar
  43. Tuomisto H. & Ruokolainen K. (1994) Distribution of Pteridophyta and Melastomataceae along an edaphic gradient in an Amazonian rain forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 5: 25–34.Google Scholar
  44. Whitmore T. C. (1984) Tropical Rain Forest of the Far East, 2nd edn. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  45. Yamada T., Itoh A., Kanzaki M., Yamakura T., Suzuki E., Ashton P. S. (2000) Local and geographical distributions for a tropical tree genus, Scaphium (Sterculiaceae) in the Far East. Plant Ecology 148: 23–30.Google Scholar
  46. Yamakura T., Kanzaki M., Itoh A., Ohkubo T., Ogino K., Chai E. O. K., Lee H. S., Ashton P. S. (1995) Topography of a large-scale research plot established within the Lambir rain forest in Sarawak. Tropics 5: 41–56.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ecological Society of Japan 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akira Itoh
    • 1
  • Takuo Yamakura
    • 1
  • Tatsuhiro Ohkubo
    • 2
  • Mamoru Kanzaki
    • 3
  • Peter A. Palmiotto
    • 4
  • James V. LaFrankie
    • 5
  • Peter S. Ashton
    • 6
  • Hua Seng Lee
    • 7
  1. 1.Laboratory of Plant Ecology, Graduate School of ScienceOsaka City UniversityOsakaJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of AgricultureUtsunomiya UniversityUtsunomiyaJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of AgricultureKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  4. 4.Antioch New England Graduate SchoolKeeneUSA
  5. 5.Center for Tropical Forest ScienceNational Institute of EducationSingapore
  6. 6.Harvard UniversityCambridgeUSA
  7. 7.Sarawak Forest DepartmentKuchingMalaysia

Personalised recommendations