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RETRACTED ARTICLE: Dietary patterns and their associations with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in Tasmanian older adults: a longitudinal cohort study

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A Retraction to this article was published on 05 December 2019

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We aimed to examine dietary patterns and their longitudinal associations with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in older adults.


A cohort of 1098 participants aged 50–80 years were followed for 5 years. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline, 2.6 and 5 years using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified at baseline using exploratory factor analysis and pattern scores for each calculated using the weighted sum score method. Associations of dietary pattern scores with participants’ characteristics were assessed using linear mixed-effects models.


The three dietary patterns identified and the food groups of which they were predominantly composed were as follows: a healthy dietary pattern (vegetables, fruits, nuts, and whole grains); a western dietary pattern (pizza, hamburgers, chips, and potatoes); and a meat and vegetable dietary pattern (red meat, fish, poultry, vegetables, potatoes, and legumes). Being a man, unemployed, a current smoker, less educated, and residing in a socially disadvantaged area were associated with lower healthy dietary pattern scores, but these differences lessened over time, except in current smokers (p < 0.03 for interactions with time). Being a man was associated with higher, but being a current smoker with lower western dietary pattern scores (β = 8.0, 95% CI: 5.3,10.7 and − 6.7: − 10.1,− 3.3, respectively). For the meat and vegetable dietary pattern, being a man and a current smoker were associated with lower scores (β = − 24.9, 95% CI: − 44.9,− 4.9 and − 66.8: − 98.3,− 35.3, respectively), while being unemployed was associated with higher scores but this difference lessened over time (p = 0.018 for interaction with time).


In older adults, men, smokers, and those experiencing social disadvantage could be target groups for interventions to improve diets.

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Change history

  • 05 December 2019

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.


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We thank all organizations that have provided funding for this research.


Fundings were provided by National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (302204); Arthritis Foundation of Australia (MRI0616); Tasmanian Community Fund (D0015018); Masonic Centenary Medical Research Foundation; and University of Tasmania Institutional Research Grants Scheme (D0015019). Sharon L Brennan-Olsen was supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of Australia Career Development Fellowship (GNT1107510). Feitong Wu is supported by an Arthritis Foundation Australia – Australian Rheumatology Association Heald Fellowship, funded by the Australian Rheumatology Association and Vincent Fairfax Family Foundation

Author contributions:

TW assisted in developing the research proposal, editing the manuscript, and provision of analytical advice. GJ, Chief Investigator of TASOAC contributed access to the study, and expertise in identifying exposures, confounders and outcomes. KW contributed expertise in analyzing and interpreting the dietary patterns. WO provided advice relating to interpretation of the dietary patterns identified in this study, and reviewed drafts of the manuscript. FW contributed to the interpretation of findings and revised the draft of the manuscript. SB-O cross-matched and coded the SEIFA data, contributed to the interpretation of findings relating to those data, and revised the draft of this manuscript. HHN wrote research proposal and manuscript, analyzed and interpreted data, and edited manuscript for publication.

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Correspondence to Tania Winzenberg.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

The authors have retracted this article [1] after discovering a major error in the data analysis made when generating the grouped items used in the factor analysis generating the dietary patterns. Because the error is in the foundations of the analysis, it means that the dietary patterns identified were themselves erroneous and their associations with socio-demographic factors are also incorrect. A re-analysis showed up major differences in outcomes when compared with those in [1]. The authors have been given the opportunity to submit a new manuscript for peer review. All authors agree with this retraction.

[1] Hoa H Nguyen, Feitong Wu, Wendy H Oddy, Karen Wills, Sharon L Brennan-Olsen, Graeme Jones & Tania Winzenberg. Dietary patterns and their associations with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in Tasmanian older adults: a longitudinal cohort study. 2019 May;73(5):714-723

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Nguyen, H.H., Wu, F., Oddy, W.H. et al. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Dietary patterns and their associations with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in Tasmanian older adults: a longitudinal cohort study. Eur J Clin Nutr 73, 714–723 (2019).

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