Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 158, Issue 1, pp 37–51 | Cite as

Availability of Cadmium in some Phosphorus Fertilizers to Field-Grown Lettuce

Article

Abstract

Although evaluations of the availability of cadmium (Cd) contaminants in phosphate fertilizers have been made, few have examined the transfer efficiency of Cd from fertilizers to plants, especially under field conditions. This 2-year field study determined the transfer of added Cd to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) (Royal Green) from a western phosphate rock (PR) and a triple superphosphate (TSP) as affected by liming and rate of fertilizer (or Cd) input. A readily soluble Cd salt, CdCl2, was included in the study for comparison. The cumulative amounts of Cd added from the fertilizers and CdCl2 over the 2-year period ranged from 0 to 1440 g ha−1. Lettuce yield increased with increasing TSP rates, but was unaffected by PR. Significant (P < 0.01) effects of Cd source and rate, lime, and year were found on Cd accumulation by lettuce. The transfer of the added Cd was consistently higher for CdCl2 than for the fertilizers regardless of lime rate. A contrasting year effect was also found between the two P fertilizers. In the second year of application, the Cd transfer efficiency increased in the soil treated with the PR, but decreased in the soil treated with the TSP. The Cd transfer efficiency for the plant was better measured with DTPA–Cd (r2= 0.78 − 0.80) or CaCl2−Cd (r2= 0.57 − 0.76) than with soil total Cd (r2= 0.39 to 0.54) across all Cd sources and lime rates. This is because DTPA–Cd or CaCl2–Cd reflected the influences of the amount of Cd added, Cd source, and lime rate on Cd accumulation by the plant better than did the soil total Cd. Of the amount of Cd added from the fertilizers an average of 1.0% or less was accumulated in the harvested lettuce tissue. Applications of the fertilizers at high rates could result in increased Cd accumulation in the soil over time.

cadmium cadmium transfer efficiency fertilizer lettuce lime 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Armiger, W. H. and Fried, M.: 1957, 'The plant availability of various sources of phosphate rock', Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 21, 183–188.Google Scholar
  2. Bell, P. F., James, B. R. and Chaney, R. L.: 1991, 'Heavy metal extractability in long-term sewage sludge and metal salt-amended soils', 20, 481–486.Google Scholar
  3. Bjerre, G. K. and Schierup, H. H.: 1985, 'Uptake of six heavy metals by oat as influenced by soil type and additions of cadmium, lead, zinc and copper', Plant Soil 88, 57–69.Google Scholar
  4. Brown, S. L., Chaney R. L., Angle J. S. and Ryan, J. A.:1998, 'The phytoavailability of cadmium to lettuce in long-term biosolids-amended soils', J. Environ. Qual. 27, 1071–1078.Google Scholar
  5. Chaney, R. L.: 1980, 'Health risks associated with toxic metals in municipal sludge', in G. Britton et al. (eds), Sludge-Health Risks of Land Application. Ann Arbor Sci. Publ., Ann Arbor, MI, pp.59–83.Google Scholar
  6. Chang, A. C., Page, A. L. and Wernicke, J. E.: 1987, 'Long-term sludge application on cadmium and zinc accumulation in swiss chard and radish', J. Environ. Qual. 16, 217–221.Google Scholar
  7. Chang, A. C., Hyun, H. M. and Page, A. L.: 1997, 'Cadmium uptake for swiss chard grown on composted sewage sludge treated field plots: PLATEAU or time bomb?', J. Environ. Qual. 26, 11–19.Google Scholar
  8. Chen, B., Shan, X. and Qian, J.: 1996, 'Bioavailability index for quantitative evaluation of plant availability of extractable soil trace elements', Plant Soil 186, 275–283.Google Scholar
  9. Chen, M. and Ma, L. O.: 1998, 'Comparison of four USEPAdigestion methods for trace metal analysis using certified and Florida soils', J. Environ. Qual. 27, 1294–1300.Google Scholar
  10. Crews, H. M. and Davies, B. E.: 1985, 'Heavy metal uptake from contaminated soils by six varieties Of lettuce (Lactuca Sativa L.)', J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 105, 591–595.Google Scholar
  11. Cunningham, J. D., Ryan, J. A. and Keeney, D. R.: 1975, 'Phytotoxicity and metal uptake of metals added to soils as inorganic salts or in sewage sludge', J. Environ. Qual. 4, 460–462.Google Scholar
  12. De Pieri, L. A., Buckley, W. T. and Kowalenko, C. G.: 1997, 'Cadmium and lead concentrations of commercially grown vegetables and of soils in the lower fraser valley of british columbia', Canadian J. Soil Sci. 77, 51–57.Google Scholar
  13. Grant, C. A. and Bailey, L. D.: 1998, 'Nitrogen, phosphorus and zinc fertilizer management effects on grain and cadmium concentration in two cultivars of durum wheat', Canadian J. Plant Sci. 78, 63–70.Google Scholar
  14. Grant, C. A., Buckley, W. T., Bailey, L. D. and Selles, F.: 1998, 'Cadmium accumulation in crops', Canadian J. Plant Sci. 78, 1–17.Google Scholar
  15. Guttormsen, G., Singh, B. R. and Jeng, A. S.: 1995, 'Cadmium concentration in vegetable crops grown in a sandy soil as affected by Cd levels in fertilizer and soil pH', Fertilizer Res. 41, 27–32.Google Scholar
  16. He, Q. B. and Singh, B. R.: 1994, 'Crop uptake of cadmium from phosphorus fertilizers. II. relationship with extractable soil cadmium', Water Air Soil Pollut. 74, 251–265.Google Scholar
  17. Heckmen, J. R., Angle, J. S. and Chaney, R. L.: 1987, 'Residual effects of sewage sludge on soybean: I. accumulation of heavy metals', J. Environ. Qual. 16, 113–117.Google Scholar
  18. Huang, B., Kuo, S. and Bembenek, R.: 2003, 'The availability to leaf lettuce of cadmium and zinc in some phosphorus and trace element fertilizers', Water Air Soil Pollut. 147, 109–127.Google Scholar
  19. Hyun, H. M., Chang, A. C., Parker, D. R. and Page, A. L.: 1998, 'Cadmium solubility and phytoavail-ability in sludge-treated soil: Effects of soil organic carbon, J. Environ. Qual. 27, 329–334.Google Scholar
  20. Iretskaya, S. N., Chien, S. H. and Menon, R. G.: 1998, 'Effect of acidulation of high cadmium containing phosphate rocks on cadmium uptake by upland rice', Plant Soil 201, 183–188.Google Scholar
  21. Jacobsen, J. and Lorbeer, S.: 2002, 'Metal concentrations in three montana soils following 20 years of fertilization and cropping', Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 33, 1401–1414.Google Scholar
  22. Jeng, A. S. and Singh, B. R.: 1995, 'Cadmium status of soils and plants from a long-term fertility experiment in southeast norway', Plant Soil 175, 67–74.Google Scholar
  23. Jinadasa, K. B. P. N., Milham, P. J., Hawkins, C. A., Cornish, P. S., Williams, P. A., Kaldor, C. J. and Conroy, J. P.: 1997, 'Survey of cadmium levels in vegetables and soils of greater sydney, Australia', J. Environ. Qual. 26, 924–933.Google Scholar
  24. Jones, K. C. and Johnston, A. E.: 1989, 'Cadmium in cereal grain and herbage from long-term experiment plots at rothamsted UK', Environ. Pollut. 57:199–216.Google Scholar
  25. Kiekens, L., Cottenie, A. and van Landschoot, G.: 1984, 'Chemical activity and biological effect of sludge-borne heavy metals and inorganic metal salts added to soils', Plant Soil 79: 89–99.Google Scholar
  26. Krebs, R., Gupta, S. K., Furrer, G. and Schulin, R.: 1998, 'Solubility and plant uptake of metals with and without liming of sludge-amended soils', J. Environ. Qual. 27, 18–23.Google Scholar
  27. Kuo, S. and McNeal, B. L.: 1984, 'Effects of pH and phosphate on cadmium sorption by a hydrous ferric oxide', Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48, 1040–1044.Google Scholar
  28. Kuo, S., Jellum, E. J. and Baker, A. S.: 1985, 'Effects of soil type, liming, and sludge application on zinc and cadmium availability to swiss chard', Soil Sci. 139, 122–130.Google Scholar
  29. Lindsay, W. L. and Norvell, W. A.: 1978, 'Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper', Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42, 421–428.Google Scholar
  30. Loganathan, P., Mackay, A. D., Lee, J. and Hedley, M. J.: 1995, 'Cadmium distribution in hill pastures as influenced by 20 years of phosphate application and sheep grazing', Aust. J. Soil Res. 33, 859–871.Google Scholar
  31. McBride, M. E.: 1995, 'Toxic metal accumulation from agricultural use of sludge: Are USEPA regulations protective?', J. Environ. Qual. 24, 5–18.Google Scholar
  32. Mortvedt, J. J.: 1985, 'Plant uptake of heavy metals in zinc fertilizers made from industrial by-products', J. Environ. Qual. 14, 424–427.Google Scholar
  33. Mortvedt, J. J.: 1987, 'Cadmium levels in soils and plants from some long-term soil fertility experiments in the united states of america', J. Environ. Qual. 16 137–142.Google Scholar
  34. Mortvedt, J. J., Mays, D. A. and Osborn, G.: 1981, 'Uptake by wheat of cadmium and other heavy metal contaminants in phosphate fertilizers', J. Environ. Qual. 10 193–197.Google Scholar
  35. Mortvedt, J. J.: 1996, 'Heavy metal contaminants in inorganic and organic fertilizers', Fertilizer Res. 61, 55–61Google Scholar
  36. Mulla, D. J., Page, A. L. and Ganje, T. J.: 1980, 'Cadmium accumulations and bioavailability in soils from long-term phosphorus fertilization', J. Environ. Qual. 9, 408–412.Google Scholar
  37. Nicholson, F. A., Jones, K. C. and Johnston, A. E.: 1994, 'Effect of phosphate fertilizers and atmospheric deposition on long-term changes in the cadmium content of soils and crops' Environ. Sci. Technol. 28, 2170–2175.Google Scholar
  38. Pierzynski, G. M. and Schwab, A. P.: 1993, 'Bioavailability of zinc, cadmium, and lead in a metal-contaminated alluvial soil', J. Environ. Qual. 22, 247–254.Google Scholar
  39. Raven, K. P. and Leoppert, R. H.: 1997, 'Trace element composition of fertilizers and soil amendments',J.Environ. Qual. 26, 551–557.Google Scholar
  40. Richards, I. R., Clayton, C. J. and Reeve, A. J. K.: 1998, 'Effects of long-term fertilizer phosphorus application on soil and crop phosphorus and cadmium contents', J. Agri. Sci. 131, 187–195.Google Scholar
  41. SAS Institute: 1989, 'SAS/STAT User's Guide', Version 6 Vol. 2., 4th ed., SAS, Inc., Cary, NC.Google Scholar
  42. Schindler, P. W.: 1981, 'Surface complexes at the solid-liquid interface', in M.A. Anderson and A.J. Rubin (eds), Adsorption of Inorganics at Solid-Liquid Interfaces, Ann Arbor Sci. Publ., Ann Arbor, MI, pp. 1–49.Google Scholar
  43. Singh, B. R. Narwal, R. P., Jeng, A. S. and Almås, Å.: 1995, 'Crop uptake extractability of cadmium in soils naturally high in metals at different pH levels', Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 262123–2142.Google Scholar
  44. Smilde, K. W., van Luit, B. and van Driel, W.: 1992, 'The extraction by soil and absorption by plants of applied zinc and cadmium', Plant Soil 143, 233–238.Google Scholar
  45. Street, J. J., Sabey, R. B. and Lindsay, W. L.: 1978, 'Influence of pH, phosphorus, cadmium, sewage sludge, and incubation time on the solubility and plant availability of cadmium',J.Environ. Qual. 7, 286–290.Google Scholar
  46. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA): 1986, 'Acid Digestion of Sediments, Sludges, and Soils', in Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, 3rd ed, USEPA SW-S846. U.S. Govt. Print Office. Washington DC, pp. 30501–30594.Google Scholar
  47. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA): 1992, 'The Technical Support Document for Land Application of Sewage Sludge', United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington DC. 822/R-93-001a and 001b.Google Scholar
  48. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA): 1998, 'Assessment of Risk from Fertilizer Use', Work Assignment Number B-17, Amendment 1, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  49. Williams, C. H. and David, D. J.: 1973, 'The effect of superphosphate on the cadmium content of soils and plants', Aust. J. Soil Res. 11, 43–56.Google Scholar
  50. Williams, C. H. and David, D. J.: 1976, 'The accumulation in soil of cadmium residues from phosphate fertilizers and their effect on the cadmium content of plants', Soil Sci. 121, 86–93.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture and Home EconomicsWashington State UniversityPullmanU.S.A

Personalised recommendations