Advertisement

Social Indicators Research

, Volume 69, Issue 1, pp 103–116 | Cite as

Quality of Life in a City: The Effect of Population Density

  • Victoria Cramer
  • Svenn Torgersen
  • Einar Kringlen
Article

Abstract

There exist a number of concepts andoperational definitions of quality of life. Inthe present study the aim has been to develop acomprehensive, global index of quality of life,and relate the sub-indexes and global index tovarious socio-demographic variables, somatichealth and density of population in theresidential area. The sample consisted of 2066individuals between 18 and 65 years old fromthe common population. Seven sub-indexes weredeveloped. They constituted one factor withmoderate intercorrelations between thesub-indexes. Good somatic health, living in astable relationship with a partner, preferablymarried, in a less densely populated area,having a good education, a good income andbeing a younger female were the independentstatistical determinants of global quality oflife. However, various sub-indexes were relatedto different socio-demographic variables. Agewas oppositely related to differentsub-indexes. The study shows the importance ofwhat type of quality of life is investigated.To our knowledge, this is the first study ofthe effect of population density on quality oflife.

age education gender income living together married population density quality of life somatic health 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Andrews, F. M. and S. B. Withey: 1974, 'Developing measures of perceived life quality: Results from several national surveys', Social Indicators Research 1, pp. 1–26.Google Scholar
  2. Campbell, A.: 1981, The Sense of Well-Being in America (McGraw-Hill, New York).Google Scholar
  3. Costa, P. T. Jr. and R. R. McGrae: 1980, 'Influence of extraversion and neuroticism on subjective well-being', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 38(4), pp. 668–678.Google Scholar
  4. Cummins, A. R.: 1995, 'On the trail of the gold standard for subjective well-being', Social Indicators Research 35, pp. 179–200.Google Scholar
  5. Cummins, A. R.: 2000, 'Objective and subjective quality of life: an interactive model', Social Indicators Research 52, pp. 55–72.Google Scholar
  6. Dalgard, O. S., S. Bjørk and K. Tambs: 1995, 'Social support, negative life events and mental health', British Journal of Psychiatry 166, pp. 29–34.Google Scholar
  7. Diener, E.: 1984, 'Subjective well-being', Psychological Bulletin 95(3), pp. 542–575.Google Scholar
  8. Diener, E.: 1994, 'Assessing subjective well-being: progress and opportunities', Social Indicators Research 31, pp. 103–157.Google Scholar
  9. Diener, E., M. E. Suh, R. E. Lucas and L. H. Smith: 1999, 'Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress', Psychological Bulletin 125(2), pp. 276–302.Google Scholar
  10. Faris, R. E. L. and H. W. Dunham: 1939, Mental Disorders in Urban Areas: An Ecological Study of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses (University Press, Chicago).Google Scholar
  11. Gurin, G., J. Veroff and S. Feld: 1960, Americans View of Their Mental Health (Basic Books, New York).Google Scholar
  12. Headey, B., R. Veenhoven and A. Wearing: 1991, 'Top-down versus bottom-up theories of subjective well-being', Social Indicators Research 24, pp. 81–100.Google Scholar
  13. Headey, B. and A. Wearing: 1989. 'Personality life events, and subjective wellbeing: Toward a dynamic equilibrium model', Journal of Personal and Social Psychology 57(4), 731–739.Google Scholar
  14. Holley, H. L.: 1998, 'Geography and mental health: A review', Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 33(11), pp. 535–542.Google Scholar
  15. House, J. S., K. R. Landis and D. Umberson: 1988, 'Social relationships and health', Science 241, pp. 540–545.Google Scholar
  16. Jones, D. C.: 1991, 'Friendship satisfaction and gender. An examination of sex differences in contributors to friendship satisfaction', Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 8, pp. 167–185.Google Scholar
  17. Kringlen, E., S. Torgersen and V. Cramer: 2001, 'A Norwegian psychiatric epidemiological study', American Journal of Psychiatry 158(7), pp. 1091–1098.Google Scholar
  18. Lama, D. and C. H. Cutler: 1998, The Art of SubjectiveWell-Being: A Handbook for Living (Riverhead Books, New York).Google Scholar
  19. Lewis, G. and M. Booth: 1992(6), 'Regional differences in mental health in Great Britain', Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 46, pp. 608–611.Google Scholar
  20. Lewis, G. and M. Booth: 1994, 'Are cities bad for your mental health?', Psychological Medicine 24(4), pp. 913–915.Google Scholar
  21. Lykken, D. and A. Tellegen: 1996, 'Subjective well-being is a stochastic phenomenon', Pshycological Science 7, pp. 186–189.Google Scholar
  22. Maslow, A. H.: 1968, Toward a Psychology of Being (Van Nostrand, New York).Google Scholar
  23. Mastekaasa, A.: 1992, 'Marriage and psychological well-being: Some evidence on selection into marriage', Journal of Marriage and the Family 54, pp. 901–911.Google Scholar
  24. Mastekaasa, A.: 1993, 'Marital status and subjective well-being: A changing relationship?', Social Indicators Research 29, pp. 249–276.Google Scholar
  25. Michalos, A. C., B. D. Zumbo and A. Hubley: 2000, 'Health and quality of life', Social Indicators Research 51, pp. 245–286.Google Scholar
  26. Michalos, A. C.: 1980, 'Satisfaction and Subjective well-being', Social Indicators Research 8, pp. 385–422.Google Scholar
  27. Mitchell, R. E.: 1971, 'Some social implications of high density housing', American Sociological Review 36, pp. 18–29.Google Scholar
  28. Myers, G. D. and E. Diener: 1995, 'Who is happy?', Psychological Science 6(1), pp. 10–19.Google Scholar
  29. Opler, M. K.: 1967, Culture and Social Psychology (Atherton Press, New York).Google Scholar
  30. Roysamb, E., J. R. Harris, P. Magnus, J. Vitterso and K. Tambs: 2002, 'Subjective well-being, sex-specific effects of genetic and environmental factors', Personality and Environmental Differences 32(2), pp. 211–223.Google Scholar
  31. Ryff, D. C.: 1989, 'Subjective well-being is everything, or is it? Exploration on the meaning of psychological well-being', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57(6), pp. 1069–1081.Google Scholar
  32. Ryff, D. C.: 1989, 'In the eye of the beholder: Views of psychological well-being among middle-aged and older adults', Psychology and Aging 4(2), pp. 195–210.Google Scholar
  33. Sandvik, F., E. Diener and L. Seidlitz: 1993, 'Subjective well-being: The convergence and stability of self-report and non-self-report measures', Journal of Personality 61(3), pp. 317–342.Google Scholar
  34. Tellegen, A., T. D. Lykken, T. J. Bouchard, K. J. Wilcox, N. L. Segal and S. Rich: 1988, 'Personality similarity in twins reared apart and together', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54(6), pp. 1031–1039.Google Scholar
  35. Torgersen, S., E. Kringlen and V. Cramer: 2001, 'The prevalence of personality disorders in a community sample, Archives of General Psychiatry (June) 58, pp. 590–596.Google Scholar
  36. Williams, A.W., J. E. Ware Jr. and C. A. Donald: 1981, 'A model ofmental health, life events and social supports applicable to general populations', Journal of Health and Social Behaviour 22(4), pp. 324–336.Google Scholar
  37. Wilson, W.: 1967, 'Correlates and avowed Subjective well-being', Psychological Bulletin 67, pp. 294–306.Google Scholar
  38. Wood, J. V.: 1996, 'What is social comparison and how should we study it?', Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 22, pp. 520–537.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victoria Cramer
    • 1
  • Svenn Torgersen
    • 1
  • Einar Kringlen
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyOslo UniversityBlindernNorway
  2. 2.Oslo UniversityOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations