Russian Journal of Plant Physiology

, Volume 51, Issue 6, pp 742–753 | Cite as

Dynamic Light Regulation of Photosynthesis (A Review)

  • N. G. Bukhov


Regulatory reactions providing the photosynthetic apparatus with the ability to respond to variations of irradiance by changes in activities of the light and the dark stages of photosynthesis within a time range of seconds and minutes are considered in the review. At the light stage, such reactions are related to the changes in both distribution of light energy between two photosystems and probability of nonphotochemical dissipation of absorbed quanta in PSI and PSII. These regulatory reactions operate in a negative feedback mode, thus avoiding overreduction of electron transport chain and minimizing the probability of generation of reactive oxygen species. The crucial role in preventing the generation of reactive oxygen species belongs to dynamic regulation of electron transport activity despite the presence of complex system of their detoxification in chloroplasts. In dark reactions of Calvin cycle, the regulatory responses involve a positive feedback principle being related to redox regulation of activities of several enzymes, which is sensitive to the reduction status of PSI acceptor side. The complex of regulatory reactions based on negative and positive feedback principles provides prolonged functioning of a chloroplast and high stability of photosynthetic activity under various light conditions.

Electron transport carbon dioxide fixation regulatory reactions 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Weston, E., Thorogood, K., Vinti, G., and López-Jues, E., Light Quantity Controls Leaf-Cell and Chloroplast Development in Arabidopsis thaliana Wild Type and Blue-Light-Perception Mutants, Planta, 2000, vol. 211, pp. 807–815.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderson, J M., Photoregulation of the Composition, Function, and Structure of Thylakoid Membranes, Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol., 1986, vol. 37, pp. 93–136.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Critchley, C., Molecular Adaptation to Irradiance: The Dual Functionality of Photosystem II, Concepts in Photobiology: Photosynthesis and Photomorphogenesis, Singhal, G.S. et al., <nt>Eds.</nt>, New Delhi: Narosa Publ., 1999, pp. 572–587.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Escoubas, J.M., Lomas, M., LaRoche, J., and Falkowski, P.G., Light Intensity Regulation of cab Gene Transcription Is Signaled by the Redox State of the Plastoquinone Pool, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1995, vol. 92, pp. 10237–10241.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chazdon, R.L. and Pearcy, R.W., Photosynthetic Responses to Light Variation in Rain Forest Species: 1. Induction under Constant and Fluctuating Light Conditions, Oecologia, 1986, vol. 69, pp. 517–523.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pearcy, R.W., Roden, J.S., and Gamon, J.A., Sunfleck Dynamics in Relation to Canopy Structure in a Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) Canopy, Agric. Forest Meteorol., 1990, vol. 52, pp. 359–372.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Doring, G., Renger, G., Vater, J., and Witt, H.T., Properties of Photoactive Chlorophyll a II in Photosynthesis, Z. Naturforsch., 1969, vol. 24b, pp. 1139–1143.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Krau, N., Ninrich, W., Witt, I., Fromme, P., Pritzkow, W., Dauterb, Z., Betzel, C., Wilson, K.S., Witt, H.T., and Saenger, W., Three-Dimensional Structure of System I of Photosynthesis at 6A Resolution, Nature, 1996, vol. 361, pp. 326–331.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Klimov, V.V., Dolan, E., and Ke, B., EPR Properties of an Intermediary Electron Acceptor (Pheophytin) in Photosystem II Reaction Centers at Cryogenic Temperatures, FEBS Lett., 1980, vol. 112, pp. 97–100.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hastings, G., Hoshina, S., Webber, A.N., and Blankenship, R.E., Universality of Energy and Electron Transfer Processes in Photosystem I, Biochemistry, 1995, vol. 34, pp. 15 512–15 522.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Van Gorkom, H.J., Identification of the Reduced Primary Electron Acceptor of Photosystem II as a Bound Semiquinone Anion, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1974, vol. 347, pp. 439–442.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bendall, D.S., Photosynthetic Cytochromes of Oxygenic Organisms, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1982, vol. 683, pp. 119–151.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hauska, G., Hart, E., Gabellini, N., and Lockau, W., Comparative Aspects of Quinol–Cytochrome c/Plastocyanin Oxidoreductases, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1983, vol. 726, pp. 97–133.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Heathcote, P., Moenne-Loccoz, P., Rigby, S.E.J., and Evans, M.C.W., Photoaccumulation in Photosystem I Does Produce a Phylloquinone (A1 - ) Radical, Biochemistry, 1996, vol. 35, pp. 6644–6650.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Golbeck, J.H., Structure and Function of Photosystem I, Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol., 1992, vol. 43, pp. 293–324.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mitchell, P., Chemiosmotic Coupling in Oxidative and Photosynthetic Phosphorylation, Biol. Rev., 1966, vol. 41, pp. 445–502.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Seibert, M., Biochemical, Biophysical, and Structural Characterization of the Isolated Photosystem II Reaction Center Complex, The Photosynthetic Reaction Center, vol. 1, Deisenhofer, J. and Norris, J.P., <nt>Eds.</nt>, San Diego: Academic, 1993, pp. 319–356.Google Scholar
  18. 19.
    Peter, G.F. and Thornber, J.P., Biochemical Composition and Organization of Higher Plant Photosystem II Light-Harvesting Pigment Proteins, J. Biol. Chem., 1991, vol. 266, pp. 16 745–16.Google Scholar
  19. 20.
    Farquhar, G.D., von Cammerer, S., and Berry, J.A., A Bio-chemical Model of Photosynthetic CO2 Assimilation in Leaves of C3 Species, Planta, 1980, vol. 149, pp. 78–90.Google Scholar
  20. 21.
    Backhausen, J.E., Kitzmann, C., and Scheibe, R., Competition between Electron Acceptors in Photosynthesis: Regulation of the Malate Valve during CO2 Fixation and Nitrite Reduction, Photosynth. Res., 1994, vol. 42, pp. 75–86.Google Scholar
  21. 22.
    Genty, B., Briantais, J.-M., and Baker, N.R., The Relationship between the Quantum Yield of Photosynthetic Electron Transport and Quenching of Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1989, vol. 990, pp. 87–92.Google Scholar
  22. 23.
    Genty, B., Harbinson, J., and Baker, N.R., Relative Quantum Efficiencies of the Two Photosystems of Leaves in Photorespiratory and Non-Photorespiratory Conditions, Plant Physiol. Biochem., 1990, vol. 28, pp. 1–10.Google Scholar
  23. 24.
    Genty, B., Harbinson, J., Briantais, J.-M., and Baker, N.R., The Relationship between Non-Photochemical Quenching of Chlorophyll Fluorescence and the Rate of Photosystem 2 Photochemistry in Leaves, Photosynth. Res., 1990, vol. 25, pp. 249–257.Google Scholar
  24. 25.
    Harbinson, J., The Responses of Thylakoid Electron and Light Utilization Efficiency to Sink Limitation of Photosynthesis, Photoinhibition of Photosynthesis: From Molecular Mechanims to the Field, Baker, N.R. and Bowyer, J.R., <nt>Eds.</nt>, Oxford: Bios Sci., 1994, pp. 273–295.Google Scholar
  25. 26.
    Bukhov, N.G., Makarova, V.V., and Krendeleva, T.E., Coordinated Changes in the Redox State of Photosys-tems I and II in Sunflower Leaves at Different Irradiances, Fiziol. Rast., 1998, vol. 45, pp. 551–557 (Russ. J. Plant Physiol., Engl. Transl.).Google Scholar
  26. 27.
    Macpherson, A.N., Telfer, A., Barber, J., and Truscott, T.G., Direct Detection of Singlet Oxygen from Isolated Photosystem II Reaction Centers, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1993, vol. 1143, pp. 301–309.Google Scholar
  27. 28.
    Takahashi, M. and Asada, K., Superoxide Production in Aprotic Interior of Chloroplast Thylakoids, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 1988, vol. 267, pp. 714–722.Google Scholar
  28. 29.
    McCord, J.M. and Fridovich, I., Superoxide Dismutase: An Enzymic Function for Erthyrocuprein (Hemocuprein), J. Biol. Chem., 1969, vol. 244, pp. 6049–6055.Google Scholar
  29. 30.
    Asada, K., Mechanisms for Scavenging Reactive Mole-cules Generated in Chloroplasts under Light Stress, Photoinhibition of Photosynthesis: From Molecular Mechanisms to the Field, Baker, N.R. and Bowyer, J.R., Oxford: Bios Sci., 1994, pp. 129–142.Google Scholar
  30. 31.
    Ohad, I., Koike, H., Shochat, S., and Inoue, Y., Changes in the Properties of Reaction Center II during the Initial Stages of Photoinhibition as Revealed by Thermolumi-nescence Measurements, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1988, vol. 933, pp. 288–298.Google Scholar
  31. 32.
    Nedbal, L., Masojidek, J., Komenada, J., Prasil, O., and Šetlik, I., Three Types of PSII Photoinhibition: 2. Slow Processes, Photosynth. Res., 1990, vol. 24, pp. 89–97.Google Scholar
  32. 33.
    Richter, M., Rhüle, W., and Wild, A., Studies on the Mechanism of Photosystem II Photoinhibition: 2. The Involvement of Toxic Oxygen Species, Photosynth. Res., 1990, vol. 24, pp. 237–243.Google Scholar
  33. 34.
    Šetlik, I., Allakhverdiev, S.I., Nedbal, L., Setlikova, E., and Klimov, V.V., Three Types of Photosystem II Photoinactivation, Photosynth. Res., 1990, vol. 23, pp. 39–48.Google Scholar
  34. 35.
    Krieger, A. and Weis, E., Energy-Dependent Quenching of Chlorophyll-a-Fluorescence, the Involvement of Proton– Calcium Exchange at Photosystem II, Photosynthetica, 1992, vol. 27, pp. 89–98.Google Scholar
  35. 36.
    Ono, T. and Inoue, Y., Removal of Ca2+ by pH 3.0 Treatment Inhibits S2 to S3 Transition in Photosynthetic Oxygen Evolution System, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1989, vol. 973, pp. 443–449.Google Scholar
  36. 37.
    Neubauer, C. and Yamamoto, H.Y., Mehler-Peroxidase Reaction Mediates Zeaxanthin Formation and Zeaxanthin-Related Fluorescence Quenching in Intact Chloroplasts, Plant Physiol., 1992, vol. 99, pp. 1354–1361.Google Scholar
  37. 38.
    Jablonski, P.P. and Anderson, J.W., Light-Dependent Reduction of Hydrogen Peroxide by Ruptured Pea Chloroplasts, Plant Physiol., 1982, vol. 69, pp. 1407–1413.Google Scholar
  38. 39.
    Miyake, C. and Asada, K., Thylakoid-Bound Ascorbate Peroxidase in Spinach Chloroplasts and Photoreduction of Its Primary Oxidation Product Monodehydroascorbate Radicals in Thylakoids, Plant Cell Physiol., 1992, vol. 33, pp. 541–553.Google Scholar
  39. 40.
    Hossain, H.A., Nakano, Y., and Asada, K., Monodehydroascorbate Reductase in Spinach Chloroplasts and Its Participation in Regeneration of Ascorbate for Scavenging Hydrogen Peroxide, Plant Cell Physiol., 1984, vol. 25, pp. 385–395.Google Scholar
  40. 41.
    Hossain, H.A. and Asada, K., Purification of Dehydroascorbate Reductase from Spinach and Its Characterization as a Thiol Enzyme, Plant Cell Physiol., 1984, vol. 25, pp. 85–95.Google Scholar
  41. 42.
    Smith, I.K., Vierheller, T.L., and Thorne, C.A., Properties and Function of Glutathione Reductase in Plants, Physiol. Plant., 1989, vol. 77, pp. 449–456.Google Scholar
  42. 43.
    Fryer, M.J., The Antioxidant Effects of Thylakoid Vitamin E α-Tocopherol), Plant Cell Environ., 1992, vol. 15, pp. 381–392.Google Scholar
  43. 44.
    Van Hasselt, P.R., de Kok, C.J., and Kuiper, P.J., Effect of α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene, Monogalactosyldiglyceride and Phosphatidylcholine on Light-Induced Degradation of Chlorophyll in Acetone, Physiol. Plant., 1979, vol. 45, pp. 475–479.Google Scholar
  44. 45.
    Bonaventura, C. and Myers, J., Fluorescence and Oxygen Evolution from Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1969, vol. 189, pp. 366–383.Google Scholar
  45. 46.
    Bennett, J., Protein Phosphorylation in Green Plant Chloroplast, Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol., 1991, vol. 42, pp. 281–311.Google Scholar
  46. 47.
    Allen, J.F., Protein Phosphorylation in Regulation of Photosynthesis, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1992, vol. 1098, pp. 275–335.Google Scholar
  47. 48.
    Forsberg, J. and Allen, J.F., Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation in the Transition to Light State 2 of Chloroplast Thylakoids, Photosynth. Res., 2001, vol. 68, pp. 71–79.Google Scholar
  48. 49.
    Zito, F., Finazzi, G., Delosme, R., Nitschke, W., Picot, D., and Wollman, F.A., The Q0 Site of Cytochrome b 6 f Complex Controls the Activation of the LHCII Kinase, EMBO J., 1999, vol. 18, pp. 2961–2969.Google Scholar
  49. 50.
    Vener, A.V., van Kan, P.J., Rich, P.R., Ohad, I., and Andersson, B., Plastoquinol at the Quinol Oxidation Site of Reduced Cytochrome bf Mediates Signal Transduction between Light and Protein Phosphorylation: Thylakoid Protein Kinase Deactivated by a Single Turnover Flash, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1997, vol. 94, pp. 1585–1590.Google Scholar
  50. 51.
    Chow, W.S., Telfer, A., Chapman, D.J., and Barber, J., State 1–State 2 Transition in Leaves and Its Association with ATP-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence Quenching, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1981, vol. 638, pp. 60–68.Google Scholar
  51. 52.
    Horton, P. and Black, M.T., Light-Dependent Quenching of Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Pea Chloroplasts Induced by Adenosine-5'-Triphosphate, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1981, vol. 635, pp. 53–62.Google Scholar
  52. 53.
    Bukhov, N.G., Wiese, C., Neimanis, S., and Heber, U., Control of Photosystem II in Spinach Leaves by Continuous Light and by Light Given in the Dark, Photosynth. Res., 1996, vol. 50, pp. 181–191.Google Scholar
  53. 54.
    Satoh, K., Fluorescence Induction and Activity of Ferredoxin-NADP + Reductase in Bryopsis Chloroplasts, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1981, vol. 638, pp. 327–331.Google Scholar
  54. 55.
    Horton, P. and Hague, A., Studies on the Induction of Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Isolated Barley Protoplasts: 4. Resolution of Non-Photochemical Quenching, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1988, vol. 932, pp. 107–115.Google Scholar
  55. 56.
    Quick, W.P. and Stitt, M., An Examination of Factors Contributing to Non-Photochemical Quenching of Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Barley Leaves, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1989, vol. 977, pp. 287–296.Google Scholar
  56. 57.
    Delosme, R., Beal, D., and Joliot, P., Photoacoustic Detection of Flash-Induced Charge Separation in Photosynthetic Systems: Spectral Dependence of the Quantum Yield, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1994, vol. 1185, pp. 56–64.Google Scholar
  57. 58.
    Delosme, R., Olive, J., and Wollman, F.A., Changes in Light Energy Distribution upon State Transition: An In Vivo Photoacoustic Study of the Wild Type and Photosynthesis Mutants from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1996, vol. 1273, pp. 150–158.Google Scholar
  58. 59.
    Sapozhnikov, D.I., Chemical Structure of Carotenoids and Their Transformation in Plant Cells, Usp. Sovrem. Biol., 1967, vol. 64, pp. 248–258.Google Scholar
  59. 60.
    Yamamoto, H.Y., Biochemistry of the Xanthophyll Cycle in Higher Plants, Pure Appl. Chem., 1979, vol. 51, pp. 639–648.Google Scholar
  60. 61.
    Demmig-Adams, B., Gilmore, A., and Adams, W.W., In Vivo Functions of Carotenoids in Plants, FASEB J., 1996, vol. 10, pp. 404–412.Google Scholar
  61. 62.
    Gilmore, A., Mohanty, N., and Yamamoto, H.Y., Epoxidation of Zeaxanthin and Antheraxanthin Reverses Non-Photochemical Quenching of Photosystem II Chlorophyll a Fluorescence in the Presence of a Transthylakoid pH, FEBS Lett., 1994, vol. 350, pp. 271–274.Google Scholar
  62. 63.
    Crofts, A. and Yerkes, C.T., A Molecular Mechanism for qE-Quenching, FEBS Lett., 1994, vol. 352, pp. 265–270.Google Scholar
  63. 64.
    Walters, R.G., Ruban, A.V., and Horton, P., Higher Plant Light-Harvesting Complexes LHCIIa and LHCIIc Are Bound by Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide during Inhibition of Energy Dissipation, Eur. J. Biochem., 1994, vol. 226, pp. 1063–1069.Google Scholar
  64. 65.
    Gilmore, A. and Yamamoto, H.Y., Linear Model Relating Xanthophylls and Lumen Acidity to Non-Photo-chemical Fluorescence Quenching: Evidence that Antheraxanthin Explains Zeaxanthin-Independent Quenching, Photosynth. Res., 1993, vol. 35, pp. 67–78.Google Scholar
  65. 66.
    Bukhov, N.G., Kopecky, J., Pfundel, E.E., Klughammer, C., and Heber, U., A Few Molecules of Zeaxanthin per Reaction Centre of Photosystem II Permit Effective Thermal Dissipation of Light Energy in Photosystems II of a Poikilohydric Moss, Planta, 2001, vol. 212, pp. 739–748.Google Scholar
  66. 67.
    Demmig-Adams, B., Carotenoids and Photoprotection in Plants: A Role for the Xanthophyll Zeaxanthin, Biochim. Biophys. Act a, 1990, vol. 1020, pp. 1–24.Google Scholar
  67. 68.
    Gilmore, A., Mechanistic Aspects of Xanthophyll-Cycle-Dependent Photoprotection in Higher Plant Chloroplasts and Leaves, Physiol. Plant., 1997, vol. 99, pp. 197–209.Google Scholar
  68. 69.
    Kohler, B.E., Spangler, C., and Westerfield, C., The 21 Ag State in the Linear Polyene 2,4,6,8,0,12,14,16-Octadeca-octaene, J. Chem. Phys., 1988, vol. 89, pp. 5422–5428.Google Scholar
  69. 70.
    Owens, T.G., Alberte, R.S., and Gallagher, J.C., Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Function of Violaxanthin in Nannochlopsis spp. (Eustigmatophyseae), J. Phycol., 1987, vol. 23, pp. 79–85.Google Scholar
  70. 71.
    DeCoster, B., Christensen, R.I., Gebhard, R., Lugtenburg, J., Farhoosh, R., and Frank, H.A., Low Lying Electronic States of Carotenoids, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1992, vol. 1102, pp. 107–119.Google Scholar
  71. 72.
    Owens, T., Shreve, A.P., and Albrecht, A.C., Dynamics and Mechanism of Singlet Energy Transfer between Carotenoids and Chlorophylls: Light Harvesting and Non-Photochemical Quenching, Research in Photosynthesis, Murata, N., <nt>Ed.</nt>, Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1993, vol. 1, pp. 179–186.Google Scholar
  72. 73.
    Frank, H.A., Cua, A., Chynwat, V., Young, A., Gosztola, D., and Wasielewski, M.R., Photophysics of the Carotenoids Associated with the Xanthophyll Cycle in Photosynthesis, Photosynth. Res., 1994, vol. 41, pp. 389–395.Google Scholar
  73. 74.
    Bruce, D., Samson, G., and Carpenter, C., The Origins of Non-Photochemical Quenching of Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Photosynthesis: Direct Quenching by P680 + in Photosystem II Enriched Membranes at Low pH, Biochemistry, 1997, vol. 36, pp. 749–755.Google Scholar
  74. 75.
    Conjeaud, H., Mathis, P., and Paillotin, G., Primary and Secondary Electron Donors in Photosystem II of Chloroplasts: Rates of Electron Transfer and Location in the Membrane, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1979, vol. 546, pp. 280–291.Google Scholar
  75. 76.
    Weis, E. and Berry, J.A., Quantum Efficiency of Photosystem II in Relation to Energy-Dependent Quenching of Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1987, vol. 894, pp. 198–208.Google Scholar
  76. 77.
    Krieger, A., Rutherford, A.W., and Jegerschold, C., Thermoluminescence Measurements on Chloride-Depleted and Calcium-Depleted Photosystem II, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1998, vol. 1364, pp. 46–54.Google Scholar
  77. 78.
    Bukhov, N.G., Heber, U., Wiese, C., and Shuvalov, V.A., Energy Dissipation in Photosynthesis: Does the Quenching of Chlorophyll Fluorescence Originates from Antenna Complexes of Photosystem II or from the Reaction Center?, Planta, 2001, vol. 212, pp. 749–758.Google Scholar
  78. 79.
    Vernotte, C., Etienne, A.L., and Briantais, J.-M., Quenching of the System II Chlorophyll Fluorescence by the Plastoquinone Pool, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1979, vol. 545, pp. 519–527.Google Scholar
  79. 80.
    Bukhov, N.G., Sridharan, G., Egorova, E.A., and Carpentier, R., Interaction of Exogenous Quinones with Membranes of Higher Plant Chloroplasts: Modulation of Quinone Capacities as Photochemical and Non-Photo-chemical Quenchers of Energy in Photosystem II during Light–Dark Transitions, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2003, vol. 1604, pp. 115–123.Google Scholar
  80. 81.
    Rajagopal, S., Egorova, E.A., Bukhov, N.G., and Carpentier, R., Quenching of Excited States of Chlorophyll Molecules in Submembrane Fractions of Photosystem I by Exogenous Quinones, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2003, vol. 1606, pp. 147–152.Google Scholar
  81. 82.
    Aro, E.-M., Virgin, I., and Anderson, B., Photoinhibition of Photosystem II: Inactivation, Protein Damage, and Turnover, Plant Physiol., 1993, vol. 103, pp. 835–843.Google Scholar
  82. 83.
    Rajagopal, S., Bukhov, N.G., and Carpentier, R., Photo-inhibitory Light-Induced Changes in the Composition of Chlorophyll–Protein Complexes and Photochemical Activity in Photosystem-I Submembrane Fractions, Photochem. Photobiol., 2003, vol. 77, pp. 284–291.Google Scholar
  83. 84.
    Sonoike, K., Terashima, I., Iwaki, M., and Itoh, S., Destruction of Photosystem I Iron-Sulfur Centers in Leaves of Cucumis sativus L. by Weak Illumination at Chilling Temperatures, FEBS Lett., 1995, vol. 362, pp. 235–238.Google Scholar
  84. 85.
    Bukhov, N.G., Rajagopal, S., and Carpentier, R., Characterization of P700 as a Photochemical Quencher in Isolated Photosystem I Particles Using Simultaneous Measurements of Absorbance Changes at 830 nm and Photoacoustic Signal, Photosynth. Res., 2002, vol. 74, pp. 295–302.Google Scholar
  85. 86.
    Bukhov, N.G. and Carpentier, R., Measurements of Photochemical Quenching of Absorbed Quanta in Photosystem I of Intact Leaves Using Simultaneous Measurements of Absorbance Changes at 830 nm and Thermal Dissipation, Planta, 2003, vol. 216, pp. 630–638.Google Scholar
  86. 87.
    Rajagopal, S., Bukhov, N.G., Tajmir-Riah, A.-T., and Carpentier, R., Control of Energy Dissipation and Photochemical Activity in Photosystem I by NADP-Dependent Reversible Conformational Changes, Biochemistry, 2003, vol. 42, pp. 11 839–11 845.Google Scholar
  87. 88.
    Buchanan, B.B., Role of Light in the Regulation of Chloroplast Enzymes, Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol., 1980, vol. 31, pp. 341–374.Google Scholar
  88. 89.
    Buchanan, B.B., Regulation of CO2 Assimilation in Oxygen Photosynthesis: The Ferredoxin/Thioredoxin System, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 1991, vol. 288, pp. 1–9.Google Scholar
  89. 90.
    Buchanan, B.B., Carbon Dioxide Assimilation in Oxygenic and Anoxygenic Photosynthesis, Photosynth. Res., 1992, vol. 33, pp. 147–162.Google Scholar
  90. 91.
    Foyer, C., Furbank, R., Harbinson, J., and Horton, P., Mechanisms Contributing to Photosynthetic Control of Electron Transport by Carbon Assimilation in Leaves, Photosynth. Res., 1990, vol. 25, pp. 83–100.Google Scholar
  91. 92.
    Schurmann, P., Stritt-Etter, A.-L., and Junsheng, L., Reduction of Ferredoxin:Thioredoxin Reductase by Artificial Electron Donors, Photosynth. Res., 1995, vol. 46, pp. 309–312.Google Scholar
  92. 93.
    Salamon, Z., Tollin, G., Hirasawa, M., Knaff, D.B., and Schurmann, P., The Oxidation–Reduction Properties of Spinach Thioredoxins f and m and of Ferredoxin:Thioredoxin Reductase, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1995, vol. 1230, pp. 114–118.Google Scholar
  93. 94.
    Knaff, D.R. and Hirasawa, M., Ferredoxin-Dependent Chloroplast Enzymes, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1991, vol. 1056, pp. 93–125.Google Scholar
  94. 95.
    De Pascalis, A.R., Schurmann, P., and Bosshard, H.R., Comparison of the Binding Sites of Plant Ferredoxin for Two Ferredoxin-Dependent Enzymes, FEBS Lett., 1994, vol. 337, pp. 217–220.Google Scholar
  95. 96.
    Scheibe, R., Redox-Modulation of Chloroplast Enzymes, Plant Physiol., 1991, vol. 96, pp. 1–3.Google Scholar
  96. 97.
    Dietz, K.J. and Heber, U., Light and CO2 Limitation of Photosynthesis and States of the Reactions Regenerating Ribulose 1,5-Bisphosphate or Reducing Phosphoglycerate, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1986, vol. 848, pp. 392–401.Google Scholar
  97. 98.
    Heber, U., Neimanis, S., Dietz, K.J., and Viil, J., Assimilation Power as a Driving Force in Photosynthesis, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1986, vol. 852, pp. 144–155.Google Scholar
  98. 99.
    Harbinson, J. and Hedley, C.L., The Kinetics of P700 + Reduction: A Novel In Situ Probe of Thylakoid Functioning, Plant Cell Environ., 1989, vol. 12, pp. 357–369.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© MAIK “Nauka/Interperiodica” 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. G. Bukhov
    • 1
  1. 1.Timiryazev Institute of Plant PhysiologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations