Human exposure assessments require a linkage between toxicant concentrations in occupied spaces and the receptor's mobility pattern. Databases reporting distinct populations' mobility in various parts of the home, time outside the home, and time in another building are scarce. Temporal longitudinal trends in these mobility patterns for specific age and gender groups are nonexistent. This paper describes subgroup trends in the spatial and temporal mobility patterns within the home, outside the home, and in another building for 619 Iowa females that occupied the same home for at least 20 years. The study found that the mean time spent at home for the participants ranged from a low of 69.4% for the 50–59 year age group to a high of 81.6% for the over 80-year-old age group. Participants who lived in either one- or two- story homes with basements spent the majority of their residential occupancy on the first story. Trends across age varied for other subgroups by number of children, education, and urban/rural status. Since all of these trends were nonlinear, they indicate that error exists when assuming a constant, such as a 75% home occupancy factor, which has been advocated by some researchers and agencies. In addition, while aggregate data, such as presented in this report, are more helpful in deriving risk estimates for population subgroups, they cannot supplant good individual-level data for determining risks.
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Field, R.W., Smith, B.J., Brus, C.P. et al. Retrospective Temporal and Spatial Mobility of Adult Iowa Women. Risk Anal 18, 575–584 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1023/B:RIAN.0000005932.47880.34
- Spatial mobility
- temporal mobility
- activity patterns