Advertisement

Disinfection in Food Processing – Efficacy Testing of Disinfectants

  • G. Wirtanen
  • S. Salo
Article

Abstract

The key to effective cleaning and disinfection of food plants is the understanding of the type of the soil to be removed from the surfaces. An efficient cleaning and disinfection procedure consists of a sequence of rinses using good quality water with application of detergents and disinfectants. Disinfection is required in food plant operations, where wet surfaces provide favourable conditions for the growth of microbes. The efficacy of disinfectants is usually determined in suspensions, which do not mimic the growth conditions on surfaces where the agents are required to inactivate the microbes. Therefore, the suspension tests do not give adequate information and reliable carrier tests, which mimic surface growth, are needed. In developing a proposal for the testing of disinfectants on surfaces to an analytical standard, it is important to identify the major sources of variation in the procedure. In response to the need for a relatively realistic, simple and reliable test for disinfectant efficacy a method for culturing laboratory model biofilms has developed. The use of artificial biofilms i.e. biofilm-constructs inoculated with process contaminants in disinfectant testing can also be used for screening the activity of various disinfectants on biofilm cells. Both biofilm carrier tests showed clearly that the biofilm protects the microbes against the disinfectants. The chemical cleanliness is also essential in food plants. The total cleanliness of the process lines is mainly based on measuring the microbial load using culturing techniques. These results can give an incorrect picture of the total cleanliness, because the viable microbes do not grow when disinfectants are left on the surface. The luminescent bacteria light inhibition method offers a useful alternative for testing chemical residue left on surfaces after cleaning and disinfection operations.

biofilm microbes chemical residues cleaning disinfection food processing 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Best M, Kennedy ME & Coates F (1990) Efficacy of a variety of disinfectants against Listeria spp. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56: 377–380Google Scholar
  2. Bloomfield SF (1988) Cosmetics and pharmaceuticals: Biodeterioration and disinfectants. In: Houghton DR, Smith RN & Eggins HOW (Eds) Biodeterioration 7 (pp 135–145). Elsevier Publishers Ltd., EssexGoogle Scholar
  3. Bloomfield SF, Arthur M, Klingeren B, van Pullen W, Holah JT & Elton R (1994) An evaluation of the repeatability and reproducibility of a surface test for the activity of disinfectants. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 76: 86–94Google Scholar
  4. Brackett RE (1992) Shelf stability and safety of fresh produce as influenced by sanitation and disinfection. J. Food Prot. 55: 808–814Google Scholar
  5. Carpentier B & Cerf O (1993) Biofilms and their consequences, with particular reference to hygiene in the food industry. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 75: 499–511Google Scholar
  6. Charaf UK, Bakich SL & Falbo DM (1999) A model biofilm for efficacy assessment of antimicrobials versus biofilm bacteria. In: Wimpenny J, Gilbert P, Walker J, Brading M & Bayston R (Eds) Biofilms–The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. BBC4 (pp 171 –177). BioLine, CardiffGoogle Scholar
  7. Chisti Y & Moo-Young M (1994) Cleaning-in-place systems for industrial bioreactors: design, validation and operations. J. Ind. Microbiol. 13: 201–207Google Scholar
  8. Christensen BE (1989) The role of extracellular polysaccharides in biofilms. J. Biotechnol. 10: 181–202Google Scholar
  9. Costerton JW & Lashen ES (1983) The inherent biocide resistance of corrosion-causing biofilm bacteria. In: The NACE Annual Conference and Corrosion Show, Corrosion 83, NACE Publication Department, Huston. Paper no. 246, Anaheim, California, USA, 18–22 April (11 pp)Google Scholar
  10. Czechowski MH & Banner M (1990) Control of biofilms in breweries through cleaning and sanitizing. Techn. Quart. Mast. Brew. Ass. Am. 293: 86–88Google Scholar
  11. Eagar RG, Leder J, Stanley JP & Theis AB (1988) The use of glutaraldehyde for microbiological control in waterflood systems. Mater. Perform. 27: 40–45Google Scholar
  12. Exner M, Tuschewitzki G-J & Scharnagel J (1987) Influence of biofilms by chemical disinfectants and mechanical cleaning. Zbl. Bakteriol. Mikrobiol. Hygiene, Serie B 183, 549–563Google Scholar
  13. Flemming H-C (1991) Biofouling in water treatment. In: Flemming H-C & Geesey GG (Eds) Biofouling and Biocorrosion in Industrial Water Systems (pp 47–80). Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  14. Frank JF & Koffi RA (1990) Surface-adherent growth of Listeria monocytogenes is associated with increased resistance to surfactant sanitizers and heat. J. Food Prot. 53: 550–554Google Scholar
  15. Gilbert P & Allison DG (1999) Dynamics in microbial communities: A Lamarkian perspective. In: Wimpenny J, Gilbert P, Walker J, Brading M & Bayston R (Eds) Biofilms – The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. BBC4, (pp 263–268). BioLine, CardiffGoogle Scholar
  16. Gilbert P, Jones MV, Allison DG, Heys S, Maira T & Wood P (1998) The use of poloxamer hydrogels for the assessment of biofilm susceptibility towards biocide treatments. J. Appl. Microbiol. 85: 985–991Google Scholar
  17. Grönholm LMO, Wirtanen GL, Ahlgren K, Nordström K & Sjöberg A-MK (1999) Anti-microbial activities of disinfectants and cleaning agents against food spoilage microbes in the food and brewery industries. Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. A, 208: 289–298Google Scholar
  18. Gould WA (1994) Current good manufacturing practices: Food Plant Sanitation. 2nd edn (pp.189–215) CTI Publications, Inc., BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  19. Han Y, Guentert AM, Smith RS, Linton RH & Nelson PE (1999) Efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas as a sanitizer for tanks used for aseptic juice storage. Food Microbiol. 16: 53–61Google Scholar
  20. Heinzel M (1988) The phenomena of resistance to disinfectants and preservatives. In: Industrial Biocides (pp 52–67). John Wiley & Sons, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  21. Holah JT (1992) Industrial monitoring: Hygiene in food processing. In: Melo LF, Bott TR, Fletcher M & Capdeville B (Eds) Biofilms–Science and Technology (pp. 645–659). Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  22. Holah JT, Betts RP & Thorpe RH (1988) The use of direct epifluorescent microscopy DEM and the direct epifluorescent filter technique DEFT to assess microbial populations on food contact surfaces. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 65: 215–221Google Scholar
  23. Holah JT, Higgs C, Robinson S, Worthington D & Spenceley H (1990) A conductance-based surface disinfection test for food hygiene. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 11: 255–259Google Scholar
  24. Holah J & Timperley A (1999) Hygienic design of food processing facilities and equipment. In: Wirtanen G, Salo S & Mikkola A (Eds), 30th R3-Nordic Contamination Control Symposium, VTT Symposium 193. Libella Painopalvelu Oy, Espoo (pp 11–39)Google Scholar
  25. Hood SK & Zottola EA (1995) Biofilms in food processing. Food Control 6: 9–18Google Scholar
  26. Juvonen R, Nohynek L, Storgårds E, Wirtanen G, Honkapää K, Lyijynen T, Mokkila M & Haikara A (2001) Control of yeast contaminations in food industry–Literature study. VTT Tiedotteita –Meddelanden –Research Notes: 2107. 144 pp, Otamedia Oy, Espoo (in Finnish)Google Scholar
  27. Kramer JF (1997) Peracetic acid: A new biocide for industrial water applications, Mater. Perform. 36(8): 42–50Google Scholar
  28. Lappalainen J (2001) Improved use and new applications of luminescent bacteria. Annales Universitatis Turkuensis Ser A I TOM. 264. (54 pp) Gillot Oy, TurkuGoogle Scholar
  29. Lappalainen J, Salo S & Wirtanen G (2003) Detergent and disinfectant residue testing with photobacteria. In: Wirtanen G & Salo S (Eds) 34th R3-Nordic Contamination Control Symposium. VTT Symposium 229 (pp 151–159). Otamedia Oy, EspooGoogle Scholar
  30. Larson EL & Morton HE (1991) Alcohols. In: Block SS (Ed) Disinfection, sterilization and preservation. 4th edn (pp 204–224). Lea and Febiger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  31. LeChevallier MW, Cawthon CD & Lee RG (1988) Factors promoting survival of bacteria in chlorinated water supplies. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54: 649–654Google Scholar
  32. Lelieveld HLM (1985) Hygienic design and test methods. J. Soc. Dairy Technol. 38: 14–16Google Scholar
  33. Lin SH & Yeh KL (1993) Cooling water treatment by ozonization, Chem. Eng. Technol. 16, 275–278Google Scholar
  34. Marrie TJ & Costerton JW (1981). Prolonged survival of Serratia marcescens in chlorhexidine. Appl. Environ. Microiol. 42: 1093–1102Google Scholar
  35. Mattila-Sandholm T & Wirtanen G (1992) Biofilm formation in the industry: A review. Food Rev. Int. 8: 573–603Google Scholar
  36. McBain AJ, Allison DG & Gilbert P (2000) Population dynamics in microbial biofilms. In: Allison DG, Gilbert P, Lappin-Scott HM & Wilson M (Eds) Community Structure and Co-operation in Biofilms (pp.309–327). Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  37. McGrath K, Odell DE & Davenport RR (1991) The sensitivity of vegetative cells and ascospore of some food spoilage yeasts to sanitisers. Int. Biodeterior. 27: 313–326Google Scholar
  38. McKane L & Kandel J (1996) Microbiology: Essentials and Applications. 2nd edn (pp 76–83). New York: McGraw-Hill IncGoogle Scholar
  39. Mosteller TM & Bishop JR (1993) Sanitizer efficacy against attached bacteria in a milk biofilm. J. Food Prot. 56: 34–41Google Scholar
  40. Nikaido H & Vaara M (1985) Molecular basis of bacterial outer membrane permeability. Microbiol. Rev. 49: 1–32Google Scholar
  41. Pontefract RD (1991) Bacterial adherence: Its consequences in food processing. Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. J. 24: 113–117Google Scholar
  42. Sanderson SS & Stewart PS (1997) Evidence of bacterial adaptation to monochloramine in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and evaluation of biocide action model, Biotech. Bioeng. 56: 201–209Google Scholar
  43. Sequeira CAC, Carrasquinho PMNA & Cebola CM (1989) Control of microbial corrosion in cooling water systems by the use of biocides. In: Microbial Corrosion Conference, Elsevier Applied Science, Essex (pp. 240–255) Sintra, 7–9 March, 1988Google Scholar
  44. Stewart PS, Griebe T, Srinivasan R, Chen C-I, Yu FP, Beer D de & McFeters GA (1994) Comparison of respiratory activity and culturability during monochloramine disinfection of binary population biofilms, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60: 1690–1692Google Scholar
  45. Troller JA (1993) Sanitation in Food Processing (pp 30–70, 263–286). Academic Press Inc., San Diego 263–286Google Scholar
  46. Winniczuk PP & Parish ME (1997) Minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials against micro-organisms related to citrus juice. Food Microbiol. 14: 373–381Google Scholar
  47. Wirtanen G (1995) Biofilm Formation and its Elimination from Food Processing Equipment. VTT Publications 251 (106 pp) VTT Offsetpaino, EspooGoogle Scholar
  48. Wirtanen G, Aalto M, Härkönen P, Gilbert P & Mattila-Sandholm T (2001) Efficacy testing of commercial disinfectants against foodborne pathogenic and spoilage microbes in biofilm-constructs. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 213: 409–414Google Scholar
  49. Wirtanen G & Juvonen R (2002) Disinfectant efficacy on spoilage yeasts isolated from various food processes. In: Wilson DI, Fryer PJ & Hastings APM (Eds) Fouling, Cleaning and Disinfection in Food Processing (pp 189–196). City Services Design and Print, Cambridge, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  50. Wirtanen G, Langsrud S, Salo S, Olofson U, Alnås H, Neuman M, Homeid JP & Mattila-Sandholm T (2002) Evaluation of Sanitation Procedures for Use in Dairies (96 pp). VTT Publication 481. Otamedia Oy, EspooGoogle Scholar
  51. Wirtanen G, Saarela M & Mattila-Sandholm T (2000) Biofilms –Impact on hygiene in food industries. In: Bryers J (Ed.) Biofilms II: Process Analysis and Applications (pp 327–372). John Wiley-Liss Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  52. Wirtanen G, Salo S, Allison D, Mattila-Sandholm T & Gilbert P (1998) Performance-evaluation of disinfectant formulations using poloxamer-hydrogel biofilm-constructs. J. Appl. Microbiol. 85: 965–971Google Scholar
  53. Wirtanen G, Salo S & Gilbert P (2003) Efficacy testing of disinfectants using microbes grown in biofilm-constructs. In: Click, A (Ed.) Biofilms in Industry, Medicine and Environmental Technology–Monitoring, Analysis and Control. IWA Publishing, London. In pressGoogle Scholar
  54. Wirtanen G, Salo S, Maukonen J, Bredholt S & Mattila-Sandholm T (1997) NordFood Sanitation in dairies, VTT Publications 309. Espoo, VTT Offsetpaino, 47 ppGoogle Scholar
  55. Zottola EA & Sasahara KC (1994) Microbial biofilms in the food processing industry–should they be a concern? Int. J. Food Microbiol. 23: 125–148Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Wirtanen
    • 1
  • S. Salo
    • 1
  1. 1.VTT Biotechnology, MicrobiologyFinland

Personalised recommendations