Appropriately regulated gene expression requires a suitable promoter. A number of promoters have been isolated and shown to be functional in plants, but only a few of them activate transcription of transgenes at high levels constitutively. We report here the cloning and characterization of a novel, constitutively expressed promoter isolated from Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus (CmYLCV), a double-stranded DNA plant pararetrovirus belonging to the Caulimoviridae family. The CmYLCV promoter is highly active in callus, meristems and vegetative and reproductive tissues in Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum, Lycopersicon esculentum,Zea mays and Oryza sativa. Furthermore, the level of expression is comparable to, or higher than, that from the CaMV 35S, the `super-promoter' or the maize ubiquitin 1 promoters, three frequently used promoters in agricultural biotechnology. The heritable, strong and constitutive activity in both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, combined with the extremely narrow CmYLCV host range, makes the CmYLCV promoter an attractive tool for regulating transgene expression in a wide variety of plant species.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Al Kaff, N.S., Kreike, M.M., Covey, S.N., Pitcher, R., Page, A.M. and Dale, P.J. 2000. Plants rendered herbicide-susceptible by cauliflower mosaic virus-elicited suppression of a 35S promoterregulated transgene. Nature Biotech. 18: 995–999.
Benfey, P.N., Ren, L. and Chua, N.H. 1990. Combinatorial and synergistic properties of CaMV 35S enhancer subdomains. EMBO J. 9: 1685–1696.
Bevan, M., Barnes, W.M. and Chilton, M.D. 1983. Structure and transcription of the nopaline synthase gene region of T-DNA. Nucl. Acids Res. 11: 369–385.
Chen, G., Rothnie, H.M., He, X., Hohn, T. and Fütterer, J. 1996. Efficient transcription from the rice tungro bacilliform virus promoter requires elements downstream of the transcription start site. J. Virol. 70: 8411–8421.
Christensen, A.H., Sharrock, R.A. and Quail, P.H. 1992. Maize polyubiquitin genes: structure, thermal perturbation of expression and transcript splicing, and promoter activity following transfer to protoplasts by electroporation. Plant Mol. Biol. 18: 675–689.
Clough, S.J. and Bent, A.F. 1998. Floral dip: a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 16: 735–743.
Day Dowson, M.S., Ashurst, J.L., Mathias, S.F., Watts, J.W., Wilson, T.M.A. and Dixon, R.A. 1993. Plant viral leaders influence expression of a reporter gene in tobacco. Plant Mol. Biol. 23: 97–109.
de Haan, P., Gielen, J.J.L., Prins, M., Wijkamp, I.G., van Schepen, A.D., van Grinsven, M.Q.J.M. and Goldbach, R. 1992. Characterization of RNA-mediated resistance to tomato spotted wilt virus in transgenic tobacco plants. Bio/technology 10: 1133–1137.
Fang, R.X., Nagy, F., Sivasubramaniam, S. and Chua, N.H. 1989. Multiple cis regulatory elements for maximal expression of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic plants. Plant Cell 1: 141–150.
Fillati, J.J., Kiser, J., Rose, R. and Comai, L. 1987. Efficient transfer of a glyphosate tolerance gene into tomato using a binary Agrobacterium tumefaciens vector. Bio/technology 5: 726–730.
Fütterer, J., Gordon, K., Pfeiffer, P., Sanfaçon, H., Pisan, B., Bonneville, J.M. and Hohn, T. 1989. Differential inhibition of downstream gene expression by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA leader. Virus Genes 3: 45–55.
Fütterer, J., Gordon, K., Sanfaçon, H., Bonneville, J.M. and Hohn, T. 1990. Positive and negative control of translation by the leader sequence of cauliflower mosaic virus pregenomic 35S RNA. EMBO J. 9: 1697–1707.
Gardner, R.C., Howarth, A.J., Hahn, P., Brown-Luedi, M., Shepherd, R.J. and Messing, J. 1981. The complete nucleotide sequence of an infectious clone of cauliflower mosaic virus M13mp7 shotgun sequencing. Nucl. Acids Res. 9: 2871–2887.
Goodall, G.J., Wiebauer, K. and Filipowicz, W. 1990. Analysis of pre-mRNA processing in transfected plant protoplasts. Meth. Enzymol. 181: 148–161.
He, X., Fuetterer, J. and Hohn, T. 2002. Contribution of downstream promoter elements to transcriptional regulation of the rice tungro bacilliform virus promoter. Nucl. Acids Res.30: 497–506.
Ingham, D.J., Beer, S., Money, S. and Hansen, G. 2001. Quantitative real-time PCR assay for determining transgene copy number in transformed plants. BioTechniques 31: 132–134, 136–140.
Jefferson, R.A. 1987. Assaying chimeric genes in plants: the GUS gene fusion system. Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 5: 387–405.
Matzke, M.A. and Matzke, A.J. 1995. Homology-dependent gene silencing in transgenic plants: what does it really tell us? Trends Genet. 11: 1–3.
Medberry, S.L., Lockhart, B.E. and Olszewski, N.E. 1992. The Commelina yellow mottle virus promoter is a strong promoter in vascular and reproductive tissues. Plant Cell 4: 185–192.
Mette, M.F., van der Winden, W.J., Matzke, M.A. and Matzke, A.J. 1999. Production of aberrant promoter transcripts contributes to methylation and silencing of unlinked homologous promoters in trans. EMBO J. 18: 241–248.
Negrotto, D., Jolley, M., Beer, S. and Wenck, A.R. 2000. The use of phosphomannose-isomerase as a selectable marker to recover transgenic maize plants (Zea mays L.) via Agrobacterium transformation. Plant Cell Rep. 19: 798–803.
Ni, M., Cui, D., Einstein, J., Narasimhulu, S., Vergara, C. and Gelvin, S. 1995. Strength and tissue specificity of chimeric promoters derived from the octopine and mannopine synthase genes. Plant J. 7: 651–676.
Pooggin, M.M., Hohn, T. and Fütterer, J. 2000. Role of a short open reading frame in ribosome shunt on the cauliflower mosaic virus RNA leader. J. Biol. Chem. 275: 17288–17296.
Ragozzino, A. 1974. Una virosi del Cestrum parqui L'Erit (Fam. Solanaceae) in Campania. Ann. Fac. Sci. Agric. Univ. Napoli IV 8: 249.
Reed, J., Privalle, L., Powell, M.L., Dawson, J., Dunder, E., Suttie, J., Wenck, A., Launis, A., Kramer, C., Chang, Y.-F., Hansen, G. and Wright, M. 2001. Phosphomannose isomerase: an efficient selectable marker for plant transformation. In vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Plant 37: 127–132.
Roberts, C.S., Rajagopal, S., Smith, L.A., Nguyen, T.A., Yang, W., Nugroho, S., Ravi, K.S., Vijayachandra, K., Harcourt, R.L., Dransfield, L., Desamero, N., Slamet, I., Hajdukiewic, P., Svab, Z., Maliga, P., Mayer, J.E., Keese, P., Kilian, K. and Jefferson, R.A. 2003. A comprehensive set of modular vectors for advanced manipulations and efficient transformation of plants by both Agrobacterium and direct DNA uptake methods. WEB-site: www.cambia.org. au/main/r_et_vman.htm
Rothnie, H.M., Chapdelaine, Y. and Hohn, T. 1994. Pararetroviruses and retroviruses: a comparative review of viral structure and gene expression strategies. Adv. Virus Res. 44: 1–67.
Ruiz, M.T., Voinnet, O. and Baulcombe, D.C. 1998. Initiation and maintenance of virus-induced gene silencing. Plant Cell 10: 937–946.
Soppe, W.J., Jasencakova, Z., Houben, A., Kakutani, T., Meister, A., Huang, M.S., Jacobsen, S.E., Schubert, I. and Fransz, P.F. 2002. DNA methylation controls histone H3 lysine 9 methylation and heterochromatin assembly in Arabidopsis. EMBO J. 21: 6549–6559.
Stavolone, L., Ragozzino, A. and Hohn, T. 2003. Characterization of cestrum yellow leaf curling virus: a new member of the caulimoviridae family. J. Gen. Virol., in press.
Vancanneyt, G., Schmidt, R., O'Connor-Sanchez, A., Willmitzer, L. and Rocha-Sosa, M. 1990. Construction of an intron-containing marker gene: splicing of the intron in transgenic plants and its use in monitoring early events in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. Mol. Gen. Genet. 220: 245–250.
Verdaguer, B., de Kochko, A., Beachy, R.N. and Fauquet, C. 1996. Isolation and expression in transgenic tobacco and rice plants, of the cassava vein mosaic virus (CVMV) promoter. Plant Mol. Biol. 31: 1129–1139.
About this article
Cite this article
Stavolone, L., Kononova, M., Pauli, S. et al. Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus (CmYLCV) promoter: a new strong constitutive promoter for heterologous gene expression in a wide variety of crops. Plant Mol Biol 53, 703–713 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1023/B:PLAN.0000019110.95420.bb
- cestrum yellow leaf curling virus
- constitutive expression
- heritable expression
- monocot and dicot expression
- stable expression