Skip to main content

A Short Index of Mystical Orientation (SIMO): A Study Among Roman Catholic Priests


The internal consistency reliability and concurrent validity of the 9-item Short Index of Mystical Orientation (SIMO) are established in relation with the parent 21-item Mystical Orientation Scale (MOS) among a sample of 1,468 Roman Catholic priests.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297–334.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Francis, L. J., & Louden, S. H. (2000a). The Francis-Louden Mystical Orientation Scale (MOS): A study among Roman Catholic priests. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 11, 99–116.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Francis, L. J., & Louden, S. H. (2000b). Mystical orientation and psychological type: A study among student and adult churchgoers. Transpersonal Psychology Review, 4 (1), 36–42.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Francis, L. J., & Thomas, T. H. (1996). Mystical orientation and personality among Anglican clergy. Pastoral Psychology, 45, 99–105.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Happold, F. C. (1963). Mysticism: A study and an anthology. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

  6. Hood, R. W. (1975). The construction and preliminary validation of a measure of reported mystical experience. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 14, 29–41.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Hood, R. W., Jr., Ghorbani, N., Watson, P. J., Ghramaleki, A. F., Bing, M. N., Davison, H. K., et al. (2001). Dimensions of the Mysticism Scale: Confirming the three-factor structure in the United States and Iran. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 40, 691–705.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. James, W. (1982). The varieties of religious experience. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

  9. Kline, P. (1993). The handbook of psychological testing. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  10. SPSS Inc. (1988). SPSSX user's guide. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Stace, W. T. (1960). Mysticism and philosophy. Philadelphia: Lippincott.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Leslie J. Francis.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Francis, L.J., Louden, S.H. A Short Index of Mystical Orientation (SIMO): A Study Among Roman Catholic Priests. Pastoral Psychology 53, 49–51 (2004).

Download citation

  • Mystical Orientation Scale (MOS)
  • Short Index of Mystical Orientation (SIMO)
  • mystical experiences of Roman Catholic priests