Nonlinear Dynamics

, Volume 33, Issue 4, pp 337–351 | Cite as

Modeling the Dynamics and Kinematics of a Telescopic Rotary Crane by the Bond Graph Method: Part I

  • Ahmet Sağirli
  • Muharrem Erdem Boğoçlu
  • Vasfi Emre Ömürlü


Cranes employed for load transfer are large volume machines and canbe designed to accomplish linear, planar or spatial motions dependingon the intended use. Understanding the dynamic behavior of thesesystems, which have a load-carrying capacity of hundreds of tonnes, ishighly noteworthy for system design, control, and work safety. Inthis study, a theoretical model of a spatially actuated telescopic rotarycrane is obtained with provided assumptions using Bond Graph techniques.Following the modeling of an actuation system and of a main structure,unification of these two is accomplished. Since the overall system consistsof high nonlinearity originating from geometric nonlinearity, gyroscopicforces, hydraulic compressibility, and elastic boom structure, the resultingderivative causality problem caused by rigidly coupled inertia elementsis addressed for this highly nonlinear system and consequential systemstate-space equations are presented.

rotary crane modeling Bond Graph method simulation experiment 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Rosenberg, R. C., ‘Computer-aided teaching of dynamic system behavior’, Dissertation, Department of Mechanical Engineering of M.I.T., Cambridge, MA, 1965.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Karnopp, D. C. and Rosenberg, R. C., Course Notes of Special Summer Course, Physical System Dynamics, M.I.T., Cambridge, MA, 1967.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Thoma, J. U., ‘Bond Graph for thermal energy transport and entropy flow’, Journal of Franklin Institute, 1971, 109–120.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Breedveld, P. C., ‘The thermodynamic Bond Graph concept applied to a flapper-nozzle valve’, in Bond Graph Modeling and Interactive Simulation’ 82, 10th IMACS Congress Montreal, and IFAC/IFIP Madrid, 1982.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dixhorn, J. J. V., ‘Physical modeling on thermodynamic basic using the Bond Graph concept’, in Bond Graph Modeling and Interactive Simulation’ 82, 10th IMACS Congress Montreal, and IFAC/IFIP Madrid, 1982.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Karnopp, D. C. and Rosenborg, R. C., Introduction to Physical System Dynamics, McGraw Hill, New York, 1983.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kalidindi, S. R. and Perera, W. G., ‘MSR acoustic vibrations due to the HP and LP tube bundle and cavity interactions using Bond Graph model’, Applied Acoustics 30, 1990, 303–320.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Karnopp, D. C. and Rosenberg, R. C., System Dynamics: A Unified Approach, Wiley, New York, 1975.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Karnopp, D. C. and Rosenberg, R. C., Introduction to Physical System Dynamics, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1983.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Thoma, J. U., Simulation by Bond Graphs, Springer, Berlin, 1990.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dransfield, P., ‘Power Bond Graphs – Powerful new tool for hydraulic system design’, Machine Design, 1975, 134–139.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Margolis, D. L. and Karnopp, D. C., ‘Bond Graph for flexible multibody systems’, Journal of Dynamic Systems 101, 1979, 50–57.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Allen, R. R. and Dubowsky, S., ‘Mechanisms as components of dynamic systems: A Bond Graph approach’, ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry 99(1), 1977, 104–111.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tiernego, M. J. L. and Dixhoorn, J. J. V., ‘Three axis platform simulation: Bond Graph and Lagrangial approach’, 1978.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yağiz, N., ‘Modelling and simulation of vehicle suspension systems by Bond Graph method’, Dissertation, Istanbul University, 1993 [in Turkish].Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tiernego, M. J. L., ‘Bond Graph modeling and simulation techniques applied to a three-axes driven pendulum’, in Bond Graph Modeling and Interactive Simulation’ 82, 10th IMACS Congress (Montreal) and at IFAC/IFIP, Madrid, 1982.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bos, A. M. and Tiernego, M. J. L., ‘Formula manipulating in the Bond Graph modeling and simulation of large mechanical systems’, Journal of Franklin Institute 319(1/2), 1985, 51–55.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gosh, A. K., Mukherjee, A., and Farugi, M. A., ‘Computation of driving efforts for mechanisms and robots using Bond Graphs’, Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control 113, 1991, 744–748.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fahrenthold, E. P. and Worgo, J. D., ‘Vector Bond Graph analysis of mechanical systems’, Transactions of ASME 113, 1991, 344–353.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Karnopp, D., ‘Approach to derivative causality in Bond Graph models of mechanical systems’, Journal of Franklin Institute 329(1), 1992.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Boğoçlu, M., ‘Modelling and optimal control of a tower crane’, Dissertation, Yildiz Technical University, 1986 [in Turkish].Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Felez, J. and Vera, C., ‘Bond Graphs assisted models for hydro-pneumatic suspensions in crane vehicles’, Vehicle System Dynamics 16, 1987, 313–332.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Karmakar, R. and Mukherjee, A., ‘Dynamics of EOT cranes, a Bond Graph approach’, Mechanisms and Machine Theory 25(1), 1990, 29–39.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Posiadala, B., Skalmierski, B., and Tomski, L., ‘Motion of the lifted load brought by a kinematic forcing of the crane telescopic boom’, Mechanisms and Machine Theory 25(5), 1990, 547–556.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sakawa, Y., Shindo, Y., and Hashimoto, Y., ‘Optimal control of a rotary crane’, Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications 35, 1981, 535–557.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sakawa, Y. and Nakazumi, A., ‘Modeling and control of a rotary crane’, Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control 107, 1985, 200–206.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mendez, J. A., Acosta, L., Torres, S., Moreno, L., Marichal, G. N., and Sigut, M., ‘A set of control experiments on an overhead crane prototype’, International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education 36, 2000, 204–221.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Karkoub, M. A. and Zribi, M., ‘Modeling and non-linear discontinuous feedback control of crane lifter systems’, Journal of Systems and Control Engineering 216, 2002.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bartolini, G., Pisano, A., and Usai, E., ‘Second-order sliding-mode control of container cranes’, Automatica 38, 2002, 1783–1790.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Allen, R. R., ‘Multiport representation of inertia properties of kinematic mechanisms’, Journal of Franklin Institute 308(3), 1979.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sağirli, A., ‘Modeling and dynamic behavior analysis of a rotary crane using Bond-Graph method’, Dissertation, Yildiz Technical University, 1996 [in Turkish].Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmet Sağirli
    • 1
  • Muharrem Erdem Boğoçlu
    • 1
  • Vasfi Emre Ömürlü
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringYildiz Technical UniversityBeşiktaş, IstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations