Journal of Nanoparticle Research

, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 241–251 | Cite as

Carbon Nanotubes, Nanocrystal Forms, and Complex Nanoparticle Aggregates in common fuel-gas combustion sources and the ambient air

  • L.E. MurrEmail author
  • J.J. Bang
  • E.V. Esquivel
  • P.A. Guerrero
  • D.A. Lopez


Aggregated multiwall carbon nanotubes (with diameters ranging from ∼3 to 30nm) and related carbon nanocrystal forms ranging in size from 0.4 to 2 μm (average diameter) have been collected in the combustion streams for methane/air, natural gas/air, and propane gas/air flames using a thermal precipitator. Individual particle aggregates were collected on carbon/formvar-coated 3mm nickel grids and examined in a transmission electron microscope, utilizing bright-field imaging, selected-area electron diffraction analysis, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry techniques. The natural gas and propane gas sources were domestic (kitchen) stoves, and similar particle aggregates collected in the outdoor air were correspondingly identified as carbon nanocrystal aggregates and sometimes more complex aggregates of silica nanocrystals intermixed with the carbon nanotubes and other carbon nanocrystals. Finally, and in light of the potential for methane-series gas burning as major sources of carbon nanocrystal aggregates in both the indoor and outdoor air, data for natural gas consumption and corresponding asthma deaths and incidence are examined with a degree of speculation regarding any significance in the correlations.

carbon nanotubes aggregates methane propane natural gas transmission electron microscopy health risks home environment 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bang J. J. & L. E. Murr, 2002a. J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 21 (5), 361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bang J. J. & L. E. Murr, 2002b. JOM 54 28.Google Scholar
  3. Bang J. J., L. E. Murr, E. V. Esquivel, P. A. Guerrero & D. A. Lopez, 2004. J. Nanosci. Nanotech., in press.Google Scholar
  4. Bang J. J., E. A. Trillo & L. E. Murr, 2003. J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 53, 227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Buseck P. R. & M. Posfai, 1999. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 96, 3372.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Chameides W. C. & M. Bergin, 2002. Science 297, 2214.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chianelli R. R., M. J. Yacaman, J. Arenas, & F. Aldape, 1998. J. Hazard. Sub. Res. 1, 1.Google Scholar
  8. Dagani R., 2003. Chem. Engr. News 81(17), 30.Google Scholar
  9. Esquivel, E. V. & L. E. Murr 2004. Mater. Character., in press.Google Scholar
  10. Gladney E. S., J. A. Small, G. E. Gordon & W. H. Zoller, 1976. Atmos. Environ. 10, 1071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Harris P. J. F., 2003. Carbon Nanotubes and Related Structures. Cambridge University Press, UK.Google Scholar
  12. Hayes B. S. & H. G. Wagner, 1980. Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys. Chem. 84(5), 499.Google Scholar
  13. Iijima S., 1991. Nature 354, 56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Katrinak K. A., P. Rez, P. R. Perkes & P. R. Buseck, 1993. Environ. Sci. Technol. 27, 539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lighty J. S., J. M. Veranth & A. F. Sara. m, 2000. J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 50, 1565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Molina M. J., L. T. Molina & C. E. Kolb, 1996. Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Momarca S., R. Crebelli, D. Feretti, A. Zanardini, S. Fuselli, & L. Filini, 1997. Sci. Total Environ. 205(213), 137.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Murr L. E., 1991. Electron and Ion Microscopy and Micro-analysis:Principles and Applications, 2nd Ed. Marcel Dek-ker, Inc., NY.Google Scholar
  19. Murr L. E., J. J. Bang, D. A. Lopez, P. A. Guerrero, E. V. Esquivel, A. R. Choudhuri, M. Subramanya, M. Morandi & A. Molian, 2004a. J. Mater. Sci. Lett. in press.Google Scholar
  20. Murr, L. E., K. F. Soto & P. A. Guerrero, 2004b. J. Mater. Sci. Letters, in press.Google Scholar
  21. Oberdo ¨rster G., R. M. Gelein, J. Ferin & B. Weiss, 1995. Inhalation Toxicol. 7, 111.Google Scholar
  22. Peters A., H. E. Wichmann, T. Tuch, J. Heinrich & M. J. Heyder, 1997. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 155(4), 1376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Schwartz J., G. Norris, T. Larson, L. Sheppard, C. Claiborne & J. Koenig, 1999, Environ. Health Perspect. 107(5), 339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Smith B. W. & D. E. Luzzi, 2000. Chem. Phys. Lett. 321, 169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ugarte U., 1992. Nature, 359, 707.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • L.E. Murr
    • 1
    Email author
  • J.J. Bang
    • 1
  • E.V. Esquivel
    • 1
  • P.A. Guerrero
    • 1
  • D.A. Lopez
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, M-201University of Texas at El PasoEl PasoUSA

Personalised recommendations