This research examined the effects at follow-up during middle school of a comprehensive elementary-school intervention program, the Child Development Project, designed to reduce risk and promote resilience among youth. Parental consent to participate in the middle school study was obtained for 1,246 students from six program and six matched comparison elementary schools. Three of the program elementary schools were in the “high implementation” group, and three were in the “low implementation” group during the elementary school study. Findings indicated that, studywide, 40% of the outcome variables examined during middle school showed differences favoring program students, and there were no statistically reliable differences favoring comparison students. Among the “high implementation” group, 65% of the outcome variables showed differences favoring program students. Overall, program students were more engaged in and committed to school, were more prosocial and engaged in fewer problem behaviors than comparison students during middle school. Program students who experienced high implementation during elementary school also had higher academic performance, and associated with peers who were more prosocial and less antisocial than their matched comparison students during middle school. Implications of these findings for prevention programming are discussed.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Albee, G. W. (1996). Revolutions and counterrevolutions in prevention. American Psychologist, 51, 1130–1133.
Bassiri, D. (1988, April). Large and small sample properties of maximum likelihood estimates for the hierarchical linear model. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.
Battistich, V., & Hom, A. (1997). The relationships between students' sense of their school as a community and their involvement in problem behaviors. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 1997–2001.
Battistich, V., Schaps, E., Solomon, D., & Watson, M. (1991). The role of the school in prosocial development. In H. E. Fitzgerald, B. M. Lester, & M. W. Yogman (Eds.), Theory and research in behavioral pediatrics (Vol. 5). New York: Plenum.
Battistich, V., Schaps, E., Watson, M., Solomon, D., & Lewis, C. (2000). Effects of the Child Development Project on students' drug use and other problem behaviors. Journal of Primary Prevention, 21, 75–99.
Battistich, V., Solomon, D., Watson, M., & Schaps, E. (1997). Caring school communities. Educational Psychologist, 32, 137–151.
Brener, N. D., Simon, T. R., Krug, E. G., & Lowry, R. (1999). Recent trends in violence-related behaviors among high school students in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282, 440–446.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32, 513–531.
Catalano, R. F., Berglund, M. L., Ryan, J. A. M., Lonczak, H. S., & Hawkins, J. D. (1999). Positive youth development in the United States: Research findings on evaluations of the Positive Youth Development Programs. Report to the US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation and National Institute for Child Health and Human Development. Available on the World Wide Web: http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/PositiveYouthDev99/index.htm
Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. (1999). Understanding substance abuse prevention. Toward the 21st Century: A primer on effective programs (DHHS Publication No. SMA 99–3301). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Cohen, J. (1977). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (Rev. ed.). (New York: Academic Press.
Coie, J. D., Watt, N. F., West, S. G., Hawkins, J. D., Asarnow, J. R., Markman, H. J., et al. (1993). The science of prevention: A conceptual framework and some directions for a national research program. American Psychologist, 48, 1013–1022.
Cowen, E. L. (1994). The enhancement of psychological wellness: Challenges and opportunities. American Journal of Community Psychology, 22, 149–179.
Greenberg, M. T., Domitrovich, C., & Bumbarger, B. (2001). The prevention of mental disorders in school-aged children: Current state of the field. Prevention and Treatment, 4, Article 1. Available on the World Wide Web: http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume4/pre0040001a.html
Hawkins, J. D., & Catalano, R. F. (1990). Broadening the vision of education: Schools as health promoting environments. Journal of School Health, 60, 178–181.
Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Kosterman, R., Abbott, R., & Hill, K. G. (1999). Preventing adolescent health-risk behaviors by strengthening protection during childhood. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 153, 226–234.
Hawkins, J., & Weiss, J. (1985). The social development model: An integrated approach to delinquency prevention. Journal of Primary Prevention, 6, 73–97.
Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., & Bachman, J. G. (2001). Monitoring the future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2000. Vol. I: Secondary school students (NIH Publication No. 01–4924). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug.
Kendzior, S., & Dasho, S. (1996, April). A model for deep, long-term change in teachers' beliefs and practices. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco.
O'Connor, T. G., & Rutter, M. (1996). Risk mechanisms in development: Some conceptual and methodological considerations. Developmental Psychology, 32, 787–795.
Resnick, M. D., Bearman, P. S., Blum, R. W., Bauman, K. E., Harris, K. M., Jones, J., et al. (1997). Protecting adolescents from harm: Findings from the national longitudinal study on adolescent health. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278, 823–832.
Rubin, D. B. (1987). Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys. (New York: Wiley.
Schafer, J. L. (1997). Analysis of incomplete multivariate data. (London: Chapman & Hall.
Solomon, D., Battistich, V., Watson, M., Schaps, E., & Lewis, C. (2000). A six-district study of educational change: Direct and mediated effects of the Child Development Project. Social Psychology of Education, 4, 3–51.
Sutherland, E. H., & Cressey, D. R. (1960). Principles of criminology (6th. ed.). (Philadelphia: Lippincott.
Tolan, P. H., & Guerra, N. G. (1994). Prevention of delinquency: Current status and issues. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 3, 251–273.
Tolan, P. H., Guerra, N. G., & Kendall, P. C. (1995). A developmental-ecological perspective on antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: Toward a unified risk and intervention framework. Special Section: Prediction and prevention of child and adolescent antisocial behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 579–584.
Watson, M. (1996, April). Giving content to restructuring: A social, ethical and intellectual agenda for elementary education. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco.
Watson, M., Battistich, V., & Solomon, D. (1997). Enhancing students' social and ethical development in schools: An intervention program and its effects. International Journal of Educational Research, 27, 571–586.
Watson, M., Solomon, D., Battistich, V., Schaps, E., & Solomon, J. (1989). The Child Development Project: Combining traditional and developmental approaches to values education. In L. Nucci (Ed.), Moral development and character education: A dialogue (pp. 51–92). Berkeley, VA: McCutchan.
Yoshikawa, H. (1994). Prevention as cumulative protection: Effects of early family support and education on chronic delinquency and its risks. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 28–54.
Zimmerman, M. A., & Arunkumar, R. (1994). Resiliency research: Implications for schools and policy. Social Policy Report, Society for Research in Child Development, VIII(4).
About this article
Cite this article
Battistich, V., Schaps, E. & Wilson, N. Effects of an Elementary School Intervention on Students' “Connectedness” to School and Social Adjustment During Middle School. The Journal of Primary Prevention 24, 243–262 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOPP.0000018048.38517.cd
- caring community of learners
- health promotion model
- influence of social context on prevention