Steroid Receptors and Cell Cycle in Normal Mammary Epithelium


DOI: 10.1023/B:JOMG.0000023584.01750.16

Cite this article as:
Anderson, E. & Clarke, R.B. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia (2004) 9: 3. doi:10.1023/B:JOMG.0000023584.01750.16


The ovarian steroids estrogen and progesterone (E2 and P) are essential for normal mammary gland growth and development; however, the mechanisms by which they influence the proliferative activity of the mammary epithelium remain unclear. Mammary epithelial cells cells expressing the receptors for E2 and P (ER and PR respectively) are separate from, although often adjacent to, those capable of proliferating, implying that the ovarian steroids act indirectly via paracrine or juxtacrine growth factors to stimulate entry into the cell cycle. A large number of candidate factors have been identified in a variety of different experimental systems, and it appears that transforming growth factor β may play a role in preventing proliferation of steroid receptor-containing cells. Dysregulation of the strict inverse relationship between ERα expression and proliferation is detectable in premalignant human breast lesions, indicating that it might be essential to the tumorigenic process. Challenges for the future include determining which of the candidates identified as being mediators of the effects of E2 are physiologically and clinically relevant as well as finding out how ERα-containing cells become proliferative during tumorigenesis. Answering these questions could greatly increase our understanding of the factors controlling mammary gland development and the processes leading to cancer formation.

mammary epithelium estrogen progesterone estrogen receptor progesterone receptor cell cycle 

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Christie Hospital NHS TrustManchesterUK

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