Host Plant Volatiles Synergize Response to Sex Pheromone in Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella

Abstract

Plant volatile compounds synergize attraction of codling moth males Cydia pomonella to sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Several apple volatiles, known to elicit a strong antennal response, were tested in a wind tunnel. Two-component blends of 1 pg/min codlemone and 100 pg/min of either racemic linalool, (E)-β-farnesene, or (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol attracted significantly more males to the source than codlemone alone (60, 58, 56, and 37%, respectively). In comparison, a blend of codlemone and a known pheromone synergist, dodecanol, attracted 56% of the males tested. Blends of pheromone and plant volatiles in a 1:100 ratio attracted more males than 1:1 or 1:10,000 blends. Adding two or four of the most active plant compounds to codlemone did not enhance attraction over blends of codlemone plus single-plant compounds. Of the test compounds, only farnesol was attractive by itself; at a release rate of 10,000 pg/min, 16% of the males arrived at the source. However, attraction to a 1:10,000 blend of codlemone and farnesol (42%) was not significantly different from attraction to codlemone alone (37%). In contrast, a codlemone mimic, (E)-10-dodecadien-1-ol, which attracted 2% males by itself, had a strong antagonistic effect when blended in a 1:10,000 ratio with codlemone.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Al-Abassi, S., Birkett, M. A., Pettersson, J., Pickett, J. A., Wadhams, L. J., and Woodcock, C. M. 2000. Response of the seven-spot ladybird to an aphid alarm pheromone and an alarm pheromone inhibitor is mediated by paired olfactory cells. J. Chem. Ecol. 26:1765–1771.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Anderson, P., Hansson, B., and Löfqvist, J. 1995. Plant-odor-specific receptor neurons on the antennae of female and male Spodoptera littoralis. Physiol. Entomol. 20:189–198.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Arn, H., Guerin, P. M., Buser, H.-R., Rauscher, S., and Mani, E. 1985. Sex pheromone blend of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella: Evidence for a behavioral role of dodecan-1-ol. Experientia 41:1482–1484.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Arn, H., Tóth, M., and Priesner, E. 2000. The Pherolist. Internet Edition: http://www-pherolist.slu.se

  5. Bäckman, A.-C. 1997. Pheromone release by codling moth females and mating disruption dispensers. IOBC wprs Bull. 20:175–180.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Bäckman, A.-C., Anderson, P., Bengtsson, M., Löfqvist, J., Unelius, C. R., and Witzgall, P. 2000. Antennal response of codling moth males, Cydia pomonella(L.) (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae), to the geometric isomers of codlemone and codlemone acetate. J. Comp. Physiol. A 186:513–519.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Bäckman, A.-C., Bengtsson, M., and Witzgall, P. 1997. Pheromone release by individual females of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 23:807–815.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Bedard, C., Gries, R., Gries, G., and Bennett, R. 2002. Cydia strobilella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): Antennal and behavioral responses to host and nonhost volatiles. Can. Entomol. 134:793–804.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Bengtsson, M., Bäckman, A.-C., Liblikas, I., Ramirez, M. I., Borg-Karlsson, A.-K., Ansebo, L., Anderson, P., Löfqvist, J., and Witzgall, P. 2001. Plant odor analysis of apple: Antennal response of codling moth females to apple volatiles during phenologicalDevelopment. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49:3736–3741.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Borg-Karlson, A.-K., Tengö, J., Valteraová, I., Unelius, C. R., Taghizadeh, T., Tolasch, T., and Francke, W. 2003. (S)-(')-Linalool, a mate attractant pheromone component in the bee Colletes cunicularius. S. Chem. Ecol. 29:1–14.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Bovey, P. 1966. Super-familleDes Tortricoidea, pp. 653–734, in A. S. Balachowsky (ed.). Entomologie Appliquée à l'Agriculture II. Masson, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Bruce, T. J. and Cork, A. 2001. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of female Helicoverpa armigera to compounds identified in flowers of African marigold, Tagetes erecta. S. Chem. Ecol. 27:1119–1131.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Coracini, M., Bengtsson, M., Liblikas, I., and Witzgall, P. (in press). Attraction of codling moth males to apple volatiles. Entomol. Exp. Appl.

  14. Dickens, J. C., Jang, E. B., and Light, D. M. 1990. Enhancement of insect pheromone response by green leaf volatiles. Naturwissenschaften 77:29–31.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Gödde, J., Arn, H., and El-Sayed, A. 1999. The pheromone sprayer: New technology in stimulus application. IOBC wprs Bull. 22:49–56.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Koschier, E. H., De Kogel, W. J., and Visser, J. H. 2000. Assessing the attractiveness of volatile plant compounds to western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. S. Chem. Ecol. 26:2643–2655.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Landolt, P. J., Heath, R. R., Millar, J. G., Davis-Hernandez, K. M., Dueben, B. D., and Ward, K. E. 1994. Effects of host plant, Gossypium hirsutum L., on sexual attraction of cabbage looper moths, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). S. Chem. Ecol. 20:2959–2974.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Landolt, P. T. and Phillips, T. W. 1997. Host plant influences on sex pheromone behavior of phytophagous insects. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 42:371–391.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Light, D. M., Flath, R. A., Buttery, R. G., Zalom, F. G., Rice, R. E., Dickens, J. C., and Jang, E. B. 1993. Host-plant green-leaf volatiles synergize the synthetic sex pheromones of the corn earworm and codling moth (Lepidoptera). Chemoecology 4:145–152.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Light, D. M., Knight, A. L., Henrick, C. A., Rajapaska, D., Lingren, B., Dickens, J. C., Reynolds, K. M., Buttery, R. G., Merrill, G., Roitman, J., Campbell, B. C. 2001. A pear-derived kairomone with pheromonal potency that attracts male and female codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Naturwissenschaften 88:333–338.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Mani, E., Riggenbach, W., and Mendik, M. 1978. ZuchtDes Apfelwicklers (Laspeyresia pomonella L.) auf künstlichem Nährboden, 1968-1978, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 51:315–326.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Masson, C. and Mustaparta, H. 1990. Chemical information processing in the olfactory system of insects. Part 1: Periphery. Physiol. Rev. 70:199–245.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Matich, A. J., Rowan, D. D., and Banks, N. H. 1996. Solid phase microextraction for quantitative headspace sampling of apple volatiles. Anal. Chem. 68:4114–4118.

    Google Scholar 

  24. McNair, C., Gries, G., and Gries, R. 2000. Cherry bark tortrix, Enarmonia formosana: Olfactory recognition of and behavioralDeterrence by nonhost angio-and gymnosperm volatiles. J. Chem. Ecol. 26:809–821.

    Google Scholar 

  25. McNeil, J. N., and Delisle, J. 1989. Are host plants important in pheromone-mediated mating systems of Lepidoptera? Experientia 45:236–240.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Meagher, R. L. and Mitchell, E. R. 1998. Phenylacetaldehyde enhances upwind flight of male fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to its sex pheromone. Florida Entomol. 81:556–559.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Ochieng, S. A., Park, K. C., and Baker, T. C. 2002. Host plant volatiles synergize responses of sex pheromone-specific olfactory receptor neurons in male Helicoverpa zea. J. Comp. Physiol. A 188:325–333.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Preiss, R. and Priesner, E. 1988. Responses of male codling moths (Laspeyresia pomonella) to codlemone and other alcohols in a wind tunnel. S. Chem. Ecol. 14:797–813.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Raina, A. K., Kingan, T. G., and Matto, A. K. 1992. Chemical signals from host plant and sexual behavior in a moth. Science 255:592–594.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Reddy, G. V. P. and Guerrero, A. 2000. Behavioral responses of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, to green leaf volatiles of Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata. S. Agric. Food Chem. 48:6025–6029.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Røstelien, T., Borg-Karlson, A.-K., Fäldt, J., Jacobsson, U., and Mustaparta, H. 2000. The plant sesquiterpene germacrene D specifically activates a major type of antennal receptor neuron of the tobacco budworm moth Heliothis virescens. Chem. Senses 25:141–148.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Schlyter, F. and Birgersson, G. 1999. Forest beetles, pp. 113–148, in R. J. Hardie and A. K. Minks (eds.). Pheromones of Non-Lepidopteran Insects Associated with Agricultural Plants. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Wearing, C. H., Connor, P. J., and Ambler, K. D. 1973. Olfactory stimulation of oviposition and flight activity of the codling moth Laspeyresia pomonella, using apples in an automated olfactometer. N. Z. J. Sci. 16:697–710.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Wildbolz, T. 1958. Über die OrientierungDes Apfelwicklers beiDer Eiablage. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 31:25–34.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Witzgall, P., Bäckman, A.-C., Svensson, M., Koch, U. T., sc Rama, F., El-Sayed, A., Brauchli, J., Arn, H., Bengtsson, M., and Löfqvist, J. 1999. Behavioral observations of codling moth, Cydia pomonella, in orchards permeated with synthetic pheromone. Biocontrol 44:211–237.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Witzgall, P., Bengtsson, M., Chambon, J.-P., Priesner, E., sc Wildbolz, T., and Arn, H. 1991. Sex pheromones of Spilonota ocellanaand Spilonota laricana. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 60:219–223.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Witzgall, P., Bengtsson, M., Karg, G., Bäckman, A.-C., Streinz, L., Kirsch, P. A., Blum, Z., and Löfqvist, J. 1996. Behavioral observations and measurements of aerial pheromone concentrations in a mating disruption trial against pea moth Cydia nigricana F. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). S. Chem. Ecol. 22:191–206.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Witzgall, P., Bengtsson, M., Rauscher, S., Liblikas, I., Bäckman, A.-C., Coracini, M., Anderson, P., and Löfqvist, J. 2001. Identification of further sex pheromone synergists in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 101:131–141.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Yang, Z., Bengtsson, M. & Witzgall, P. Host Plant Volatiles Synergize Response to Sex Pheromone in Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella . J Chem Ecol 30, 619–629 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOEC.0000018633.94002.af

Download citation

  • Sex pheromone
  • kairomone
  • synergism
  • host plant volatile
  • (E)-β-farnesene
  • (±)-linalool
  • (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol
  • Malus
  • Cydia pomonella
  • Tortricidae
  • Lepidoptera