Mathematics Teaching as a Deliberate Practice: An Investigation of Elementary Pre-service Teachers' Reflective Thinking During Student Teaching

Abstract

In this case study I examine the reflectivepractices of two elementary pre-serviceteachers during their student teachinginternship. I extend current views ofreflective practice to create a framework for a`deliberate practitioner'. With this framework,I investigate the pre-service teachers'thinking with regard to reflective processesand how they use their pedagogical contentknowledge in their practices. My findingsindicate that the pre-service teachers usetheir pedagogical content knowledge inanticipating problematic events, and inreflecting on problematic events ininstruction. However, limits in pedagogicalcontent knowledge and lack of confidence impedethe pre-service teachers' reflection while inthe act of teaching. They were more likely toreflect on their practices outside of the actof teaching. Implications for teacher educatorsand pre-service teachers are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

REFERENCES

  1. Alasuutari, P. (1995). Researching culture: Qualitative method and cultural studies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Ball, D. & Bass, H. (2000). Interweaving content and pedagogy in teaching and learning to teach: Knowing and using mathematics. In J. Boaler (Ed.), Multiple perspectives on mathematics teaching and learning: International perspectives on mathematics education (pp. 83–104). London: Ablex.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Ball, D., Lubienski, S. & Mewborn, D. (2001). Mathematics. In V. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (4th edition) (pp. 433–456). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Blumer, H. (1969). Symbolic interactionism. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Bogdan, R. & Biklen, S. (1992). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Borko, H., Eisenhart, M., Brown, C., Underhill, R., Jones, D. & Agard, P. (1992). Learning to teach hard mathematics: Do novice teachers and their instructors give up too easily? Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 23(3), 194–222.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Borko, H. & Putnam, R. (1996). Learning to teach. In D. Berliner & R. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 673–708). New York: Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Campbell, L. (1997). How teachers interpret MI theory. Educational Leadership, 55(1), 14–19.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Carpenter, T., Fennema, E., Franke, M., Levi, L. & Empson, S. (1999). Children's mathematics: Cognitively guided instruction. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Christensen, D. (1996). The professional knowledge-research base for teacher education. In J. Sikula, T. Buttery & E. Guyton (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education (2nd edition) (pp. 38–52). New York: Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Cobb, P. & Bauersfeld, H. (1995). Introduction: The coordination of psychological and sociological perspectives in mathematics education. In P. Cobb & H. Bauersfeld (Eds.), The emergence of mathematical meaning: Interaction in classroom cultures (pp. 1–16). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Colton, A. & Sparks-Langer, G. (1993). A conceptual framework to guide the development of teacher reflection and decision making. Journal of Teacher Education, 44(1), 45–54.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Corwin, R. (1996). Talking mathematics: Supporting children's voices. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Dewey, J. (1910). How we think. Boston: DC Heath.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Eicholz, R. Addison-Wesley mathematics. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley.

  16. Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Grossman, P. (1990). The making of a teacher: Teacher knowledge and teacher education. New York: Teachers College Press.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Hubbard, R. & Power, B. (1993). The art of classroom inquiry: A handbook for teacher researchers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

    Google Scholar 

  19. LeCompte, M., Millroy, W. & Preissle, J. (1992). The handbook of qualitative research in education. New York: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  20. McIntyre, D. Byrd, D. & Foxx, S. (1996). Field and laboratory experiences. In J. Sikula, T. Buttery & E. Guyton (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 171–193). New York: Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  21. McNiff, J., Lomax, P. & Whitehead, J. (1996). You and your action research project. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Mewborn, D. (1999). Reflective thinking among pre-service elementary mathematics teachers. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 30(3), 316–341.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Miles, M. & Huberman, A. (1994). Qualitative data analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  24. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (1989). Curriculum and evaluation standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  25. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (1991). Professional standards for teaching mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  26. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Russell, T. & Munby, H. (1991). Reframing: The role of experience in developing teachers' professional knowledge. In D. Schön (Ed.), The reflective turn (pp. 164–188). New York: Teachers College Press.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Schifter, D., Bastable, V. & Russell, S. (1999). Making meaning for operations. Parsippany, NJ: Dale Seymour Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Schifter, D. & Fosnot, C. (1993). Reconstructing mathematics education: Stories of teachers meeting the challenge of reform. New York: Teachers College Press.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Schön, D. (1983). The reflective practitioner. New York: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Schön, D. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Shulman, L. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4–14.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Shulman, L. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1–22.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Stake, R. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1990). The basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Sullivan, S. & Glanz, J. (2000). Supervision that improves teaching: Strategies and techniques. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  37. TERC. (1998). Investigations in number data and space. White Plains, NY: Dale Seymour.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Valli, L. (Ed.) (1992). Reflective teacher education: Cases and critiques. Albany: State University of New York Press.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Valli, L. (2000). Connecting teacher development and school improvement: Ironic consequences of a pre-service action research course. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16, 715–730.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Van de Walle, J. (1998). Elementary and middle school mathematics: Teaching developmentally. New York: Addison Wesley Longman.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Zeichner, K. (1993, August). Research on teacher thinking and different views of reflective practice in teaching and teacher education. Paper presented at the Sixth International Conference of the International Study Association on Teacher Thinking, Goteborg, Sweden.

  42. Zeichner, K. & Liston, D. (1996). Reflective teaching: An introduction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Amy Roth McDuffie.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

McDuffie, A.R. Mathematics Teaching as a Deliberate Practice: An Investigation of Elementary Pre-service Teachers' Reflective Thinking During Student Teaching. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education 7, 33–61 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JMTE.0000009970.12529.f4

Download citation

  • mathematics education
  • pedagogical content knowledge
  • reflective practice
  • student teaching
  • teacher education